Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. In the case of non-human animals, this is also called spaying. It is a form of sterilization.
The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.
In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.
In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.
Oophorectomy is sometimes referred to as castration, but that term is most often used to mean the removal of a male animal's testicles.
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The shahādah, or the Islamic creed, is a declaration of belief in the unity of God and the prophethood of Muhammad. Its recitation is considered one of the Five Pillars of Islam. When stated aloud, one is considered to have officially declared oneself a convert to Islam.
The Arabic words are: لا إلاه إلا الله ومحمد رسول الله
which are romanized:
In English, the credo goes:
Honest recitation of the shahādah once, in Arabic, in front of two Muslim witnesses, is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim.
It is considered correct to refer to previous figures, such as Jesus (in Arabic, Isa) as prophets (rasul), and some groups (notably certain Sufi mystics) will amend the declaration to mention prior prophets whose names are found in the Qur'an.
One of the earliest surviving translations of the Shahada into a foreign language is in Greek, from the reign of al-Walid I (86-96 AH, 705-715 AD): Ouk estin theos ei mē ho theos monos, Maamet apostolos theou. http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Papyri/enlp1.html (Literally: There is no god except the one god, Muhammad is God's messenger.")