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Bahá'í Faith

Known in India as the "Lotus Temple", the Baha'i House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year.
Known in India as the "Lotus Temple", the Baha'i House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year.

The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion whose members follow the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh, founder and prophet of the religion. Its central theme is that humanity is one single race and that the day has come for its unification in one global society. Bahá'u'lláh, a Persian whose name is Arabic for "the Glory of God", taught that there is one God who progressively reveals his will to humanity. In the Bahá'í view, each of the great religions were brought by Messengers of God—such as Moses, Krishna, the Buddha, Zoroaster, Jesus, Muhammad, and the Báb—and represent a successive stage in the spiritual development of civilization. Bahá'ís believe Bahá'u'lláh is the most recent Messenger in this line, and that he has brought teachings which address the moral and spiritual challenges of the modern world. As such, although the Bahá'í Faith is not traditionally included among the Abrahamic religions, it recognizes many of the same personages. Because of its inclusiveness in recognizing all the above as messengers of God, the Baha'i Faith is commonly assumed in religious studies textbooks to be syncretic[1], although this is disputed by other scholars and by the Baha'is themselves.


Geographic extent

The Bahá'í Faith, according to The Britannica Book of the Year (1992), is the second most widespread of the world's independent religions in terms of the number of countries in which it is represented; it is established in 247 countries and territories throughout the world. Bahá'ís come from over 2,100 ethnic, racial, and tribal groups and are numbered at approximately six million adherents worldwide. The central works of the Bahá'í Scriptures have been translated into 802 languages.

The majority of Baha'is live in Asia (3.6 million), Africa (1.8 million), and Latin America (900,000). According to "The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2004", the largest Baha'i community in the world is in India, with 2.2 million Baha'is residing there, although only 5,575 claimed to be Baha'i in the 1991 Census [2]. Next is Iran, with 350,000 Baha'is, and the USA, with 150,000. Aside from these countries, numbers vary greatly. Currently, no country has a Baha'i majority. Bolivia is the country with the largest percentage of Baha´is (3%).


The Báb

Shrine of the Bab in
Shrine of the Bab in Haifa, Israel
Please see biographic article for full details

In 1844 the Persian prophet-herald Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad, proclaimed that he was "the Báb", which means "the Door" in Arabic, thus establishing a new religion. It is distinct from Islam but grew out of the Islamic matrix in the same way that Christianity grew out of Judaism, or Buddhism out of Hinduism. Followers of the Báb were known as Bábís and their religion as "the Bábí Faith." Although the Bábí Faith has its own scriptures and religious teachings, Bahá'ís believe its duration was intended to be very short. In their reading of the Báb's writings, he declared his primary purpose to have been to prepare the way for "Him whom God shall manifest," the one promised in the scriptures of all of the world's great religions.

As the Báb's teachings spread his followers came into increasing conflict with the state religion, and in several instances this led to violence. Bahá'ís emphasize the persecution of the Faith and the torture and execution of large numbers of Bábís. The Báb was imprisoned and eventually executed by a firing squad in Tabriz, Persia (present-day Iran) on July 9, 1850. His mission lasted six years.

His tomb, the 'Shrine of the Báb', located on the slope of Mount Carmel in Haifa is an important pilgrim place for Bahá'ís. The remains of the Báb were brought secretly from Persia to the Holy Land and were eventually interred in the Shrine built for them in a spot specifically designated by Bahá'u'lláh.


Please see biographical article for full details

Mírzá Husayn-`Alí, known as Bahá'u'lláh, was the son of a Persian nobleman who became one of the early followers of the Báb. He was arrested and imprisoned during a period of severe persecution in 1852. He claimed that while incarcerated in the dungeon of the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran, he received the first intimations that he was the One anticipated by the Báb. Eleven years later, in 1863, while exiled in Baghdad, he formally announced his mission to his family and a small number of followers.

Problems with the Persian and Ottoman authorities took Bahá'u'lláh further and further into exile, from Baghdad to Istanbul (Constantinople), then to Edirne (formerly Adrianople, also within the Ottoman Empire), and finally, in 1868, to the penal colony of Acre (in present-day Israel), on the very edge of the Ottoman Empire. Bahá'u'lláh remained there until his death on May 29, 1892, after forty years of exile and imprisonment. Bahá'ís regard his resting place outside the city as the holiest spot on earth, the Bahá'í Qiblih to which they turn in prayer each day.

During his lifetime, Bahá'u'lláh wrote the equivalent of more than one-hundred volumes of what Bahá'ís believe are divinely inspired writings in Arabic and Persian, including the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, "the Most Holy Book", the main repository of Bahái teaching, written in 1873.

During his life, Bahá'u'lláh had three wives and a total of fourteen children (seven from his first wife Assieh later surnamed Navvab, six from his second wife Fatimih known as Mahd-i-'Ulya and one from his last wife Gowhar) of which a total of seven made it to adulthood.


Please see biographical article for full details

Bahá'u'lláh was followed by `Abdu'l-Bahá, as his successor and the sole interpreter of his teachings, designated as the "Center of the Covenant" and Head of the Faith [3]

`Abdu'l-Bahá had shared his father's long exile and imprisonment. This imprisonment continued until `Abdu'l-Bahá's own release as a result of the "Young Turk" revolution in 1908.

Following his release he lead a life of travelling, speaking and maintaining correspondance with communities of believers and individuals, expounding the principles of the Bahai Faith.

Abdu'l-Bahá was the oldest surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, from Bahá'u'lláh's first wife. Abdu'l-Bahá expelled from the Faith much of His relatives (along with some others) as Covenant-Breakers for attacking His Authority as the Center of The Covenant, which all Bahá'ís today recognize. Bahá'ís believe this period of time exhibited strength within the Bahá'í Community to resist division.

`Abdu'l-Bahá died in Haifa on November 28, 1921 and is now buried in one of the front rooms in the Shrine of the Báb.

The Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh and division


In the Bahá'í Faith, "Covenant" refers to the God's promise to send prophets to be his mouth-piece, as well as to the succession of authority from Bahá'u'lláh to `Abdu'l-Bahá, and from `Abdu'l-Bahá to the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice. Those who publicly rebel against this established succession of authority with the intent of taking its leadership are sometimes declared "covenant-breakers", and subsequently expelled from the Bahá'í community. According to Bahá'í religious teachings, the purpose of the Covenant is to safeguard the unity of the Bahá'í community, protecting it from the influence of schismatics.

Since its early days when emerging from the framework of Bábism, the Bahá'í Faith has not been without controversy. During the time of Baha'u'llah, a split occurred between him and his younger half-brother Mirza Yahya, Subh-i-Azal, whom the Báb had appointed as a figurehead of the Bábi community, but had allowed the idea of religious power to pursue his own personal gain (see Báb for details). The followers of Subh-i-Azal became known as Azalis while the followers of Bahá'u'lláh became known as Bahá'ís. According to Bahá'í teachings, by the early 20th century, the Azalis as a group had ceased to exist.

Bahá'í theology asserts that any permanent schism in the Bahá'í Faith is impossible, even while recognizing that attempts would, as in prior religious history, be made in this direction. Efforts to break away or take over the Bahá'í Faith have existed since the faith's inception and with the passing of each central figure or authority. Bahá'ís belonging to the majority group headed by the Universal House of Justice in Haifa believe that through the history of the Faith, each of these attempts to attack the Faith have faded away into obscurity through the protection of the "Covenant", which is essentially the written Will and Testaments of the respective Centers of the Covenant. Included in these written wills were instructions on how Bahá'ís can resolve differences of opinion should they arise. The following quote of `Abdu'l-Bahá brings light to this in unequivocal terms.

As to the most great characteristic of the revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, a specific teaching not given by any of the Prophets of the past: It is the ordination and appointment of the Centre of the Covenant. By this appointment and provision He has safeguarded and protected the religion of God against difference and schisms, making it impossible for anyone to create a new sect or faction of belief. —`Abdu'l-Bahá [4]

However, other passages, including some from `Abdu'l-Bahá make clear that people would make such attempts: grievous is the conduct and behavior of this false people that they are become even as an axe striking at the very root of the Blessed Tree. Should they be suffered to continue they would, in but a few days' time, exterminate the Cause of God, His Word, and themselves.
Hence, the beloved of the Lord must entirely shun them, avoid them, foil their machinations and evil whisperings, guard the Law of God and His religion, engage one and all in diffusing widely the sweet savors of God and to the best of their endeavor proclaim His Teachings. —`Abdu'l-Bahá [5]

After the death of Shoghi Effendi Rabbani there was no clear leader of the faith, as his Will remained unwritten, thus not appointing a succeeding Guardian. A close friend and highly respected member of the Bahá'í community Charles Mason Remey called for the Bahá'í community to recognize him as the head of the faith, going against all other Hands of the Cause that Shoghi Effendi appointed. Some Bahá'ís accepted his claim and became known as Remeyites, whilst the majority looked towards the creation of the Universal House of Justice as prescribed by Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá. Despite his written affirmations in 1957 that Shoghi Effendi had appointed no successor and could not have appointed one, Remey himself laid claim to this station in a "Proclamation" of April 1960 declaring that he was the "Second Guardian". He based this claim on the fact that he had been named president of the appointed International Bahá'í Council. When he refused to renounce his attempt to thus seize control of the Cause, the Hands of the Cause expelled him from the Faith as a violator of the Covenant. Shortly thereafter a number of believers in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere who had accepted his claim were likewise expelled from the Faith as Covenant-Breakers.

Since Remey's death in 1974 the minority group has undergone further splits. Some of these are described at minor Baha'i divisions. A history of these disputes according to the perspective of the Universal House of Justice is also available here.

Administrative order


`Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament [6] is the charter of the Bahá'í administrative order. In this document `Abdu'l-Bahá established the twin institutions of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, and he appointed his eldest grandson, Shoghi Effendi, as the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. Again, because of the clear directions in the Will and Testament, there was no question as to the succession of leadership in the Faith.

Shoghi Effendi, who was a student at Oxford University at the time of his grandfather's passing, served as the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith until his passing in 1957. For thirty-six years he developed the Bahá'í community and its administrative structure in order to prepare it to support the election of the Universal House of Justice. Because the Bahá'í community was relatively small and undeveloped when the Guardian assumed the leadership of the Faith, it took many years to strengthen it and develop it to the point where it was capable of supporting the administrative structure envisioned by `Abdu'l-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi pursued this goal energetically and systematically.

As outlined in the Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá, the roles and functions of the institutions of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice were clearly complementary: the Guardianship's function was interpretive, while the function of the Universal House of Justice was legislative. Neither should infringe upon the role of the other. Throughout the period of the Guardianship, Shoghi Effendi exercised his interpretive function. He translated the sacred writings of the Faith; he developed global plans for the expansion of the Bahá'í community; he developed the World Center of the Bahá'í Faith in Haifa; he carried on a voluminous correspondence with communities and individuals around the world; and he built the administrative structure of the Faith, preparing the community for the election of the Universal House of Justice.

The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá clearly anticipated that there would be a succession of Guardians, but this was not to be. `Abdu'l-Bahá had indicated that the first born of the Guardian should be his successor, but if that individual did not inherit the Guardian's spiritual qualities, then he should appoint another male descendant of Bahá'u'lláh. However, Shoghi Effendi did not have children, and through the years all of the members of his family had rebelled against the authority conferred upon him, becoming "Covenant-Breakers". Thus, it was not possible for him to appoint a successor as Guardian. It was also clear from `Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament that only the Universal House of Justice had the authority to resolve questions not explicitly dealt with by either Bahá'u'lláh or `Abdu'l-Bahá, and this issue would obviously need to be taken up by that body. And so Shoghi Effendi had laid the foundations for the election of the Universal House of Justice. This nine-member body, which governs the international Bahá'í community, was first elected in 1963. That same year, it determined that there was "no way to appoint or to legislate to make it possible to appoint a second Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi." [7] Bahá'ís all over the world, loyal to the Covenant first established by Bahá'u'lláh and then carried forward by `Abdu'l-Bahá, accepted this decision made by what they believe is the divinely guided central authority of their Faith.

There is no clergy in the Bahá'í Faith. At the grassroots level, Bahá'í communities are governed by freely elected nine-member councils called "Local Spiritual Assemblies". Similarly, National Spiritual Assemblies direct and coordinate the affairs of national Bahá'í communities. The Bahá'í electoral process is unique. There is no system of candidature, electioneering or campaigning, and the purpose is to elect members who best possess those spiritual qualities that enable them to serve the community. Both men and women age 21 or over are eligible to elect and be elected to the local and national assemblies, while the Universal House of Justice is male only.

Restrictions on Freedom in the Bahá'í Community

In addition to observing religious laws (see below) there are certain restrictions on personal freedom in the Bahá'í community. For example, Bahá'ís are required to provide a copy of books and articles on Bahá'í-related subjects for pre-publication review by an administrative committee; publication is allowed only after approval is given. Although material published on the internet is not subject to review, in at least one case Bahá'ís who ran Internet listservs were reprimanded because their activity led to free public debate that the Bahá'í administration saw as inappropriate. Another example is that Bahá'ís are discouraged from speaking with excommunicated members and forbidden from colluding with them. Such restrictions can be seen as limiting opportunities for open and honest discussion, and some opponents have alleged that restrictive practices of this sort are widespread (see e.g. [8], [9], unofficial Bahá'í response [10], official Bahá'í view on rights and freedoms [11]).

Entry by troops and teaching the Faith

The term entry by troops in the Bahá'í writings refers to an expected period where many people will accept the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'í communities are readying resources for the day they believe entry by troops will happen. Baha'is believe that "teaching" the Faith is one of the most meritorious of deeds, but no proselytizing is allowed. Some people see no real difference between teaching and proselytizing, since the aim in both cases is to actively promote and spread the religion. According to the Universal House of Justice the difference is a matter of approach: "teaching" is not supposed to use high-pressure methods, psychological manipulation or material incentives. [12]

Teachings and laws

Bahá'u'lláh's primary teachings are these:

  • There is but one supreme deity. (God) and he is unknowable to man.
Bahá'u'lláh writes on this subject:
"So perfect and comprehensive is His creation that no mind or heart, however keen or pure, can ever grasp the nature of the most insignificant of His creatures; much less fathom the mystery of Him Who is the Day Star of Truth, Who is the invisible and unknowable Essence..." [13]
and further
"All that the sages and mystics have said or written have never exceeded, nor can they ever hope to exceed, the limitations to which man's finite mind hath been strictly subjected. To whatever heights the mind of the most exalted of men may soar, however great the depths which the detached and understanding heart can penetrate, such mind and heart can never transcend that which is the creature of their own thoughts. The meditations of the profoundest thinker, the devotions of the holiest of saints, the highest expressions of praise from either human pen or tongue, are but a reflection of that which hath been created within themselves." [14]
  • There is but one humanity; all people are equal in the sight of God regardless of race, gender, nationality, etc. At the same time the Bahá'í Writings emphasize the value of cultural and individual differences: "It [the Faith] does not ignore, nor does it attempt to suppress, the diversity of ethnical origins, of climate, of history, of language and tradition, of thought and habit, that differentiate the peoples and nations of the world... Its watchword is unity in diversity..." [15] This point is often illustrated by the image of different flowers contributing to the beauty of a garden.
  • All the world's great religions receive their inspiration from the same divine source.
`Abdu'l-Bah&aacute wrote:
The differences among the religions of the world are due to the varying types of minds. [16]
Regarding the relationships and station of the various founders of the worlds great religions, which Bahá'ís refer to as "Manifestations of God" Bahá'u'lláh writes:
God hath ordained the knowledge of these sanctified Beings to be identical with the knowledge of His own Self. Whoso recognizeth them hath recognized God. Whoso hearkeneth to their call, hath hearkened to the Voice of God, and whoso testifieth to the truth of their Revelation, hath testified to the truth of God Himself. Whoso turneth away from them, hath turned away from God, and whoso disbelieveth in them, hath disbelieved in God . . . They are the Manifestations of God amidst men, the evidences of His Truth, and the signs of His glory. [17]
Since the founders of all the world religions are essentially the manifestations of one God, it follows that the religions themselves are from the same source, and have the same goal, Bahá'u'lláh has therefore urged the followers of the different religions to put aside their differences.
The Great Being saith: O ye children of men! The fundamental purpose animating the Faith of God and His Religion is to safeguard the interests and promote the unity of the human race, and to foster the spirit of love and fellowship amongst men. Suffer it not to become a source of dissension and discord, of hate and enmity. [18]
Bahá'u'lláh urged the elimination of religious intolerance. `Abdu'l-Bahá expresses the same idea even more emphatically in his Will and Testament.
"Consort with all the peoples, kindreds and religions of the world with the utmost truthfulness, uprightness, faithfulness, kindliness, good-will and friendliness, that all the world of being may be filled with the holy ecstasy of the grace of Bahá, that ignorance, enmity, hate and rancour may vanish from the world and the darkness of estrangement amidst the peoples and kindreds of the world may give way to the Light of Unity. Should other peoples and nations be unfaithful to you show your fidelity unto them, should they be unjust toward you show justice towards them, should they keep aloof from you attract them to yourself, should they show their enmity be friendly towards them, should they poison your lives, sweeten their souls, should they inflict a wound upon you, be a salve to their sores. Such are the attributes of the sincere! Such are the attributes of the truthful." [19]
Bahá'ís often refer to this concept as "Progressive Revelation", meaning that God's will is revealed to us progressively, as we mature and are better able to comprehend the purpose of God in creating humanity.

Social principles

The following 12 "principles" are frequently listed as a quick summary of the Bahá'í teachings. They are derived from transcripts of speeches given by Abdu'l-Bahá during his tour of Europe and North America in 1912. The list is not authoritative and a variety of such lists circulate.

  • The Oneness of God
  • The Oneness of religion
  • The Oneness of mankind
  • Equality of women and men
  • Elimination of all forms of prejudice
  • World peace
  • Harmony of religion and science
  • Independent investigation of truth
  • The need for universal compulsory education
  • The need for a universal auxiliary language
  • Obedience to government and non-involvement in politics
  • A spiritual solution to economic problems (elimination of extremes of wealth and poverty)

Another Bahá'í principle is that of moderation in all things (specifically liberty, civilization, religious zeal and scriptural literalism .) The Bahá'í teachings also reject asceticism and monasticism.

Bahá'ís believe that although the current age is quite dark, the future of humanity is gloriously bright and that world peace is inevitable. This bright future is generally seen by Baha'is as the fulfilment of prophecies in various older religions (see for example [20]). Many Bahá'í beliefs are in harmony with those of the emerging global civilization (such as support for international organisations, universal standards of human rights, and the free movement of people and trade between countries). At the same time, the Bahá'í teachings differ in important ways from many values associated with westernization and its harmful effects (rejecting, for example, cultural uniformity, materialism, economic injustice and "loose" moral standards).

To be a Bahá'í means that a person believes that Bahá'u'lláh is the manifestation of God for this time. A Bahá'í strives to follow his teachings and observe his laws.


There are very few rituals or traditions in the Bahá'í Faith, and rigidity is seen as a quality that must be avoided. However, there are a few basic religious observances that the Kitáb-i-Aqdas holds as obligatory:

  • There is a specified set of marriage vows.
  • There are a few specified funerary practices.
  • Bahá'ís are enjoined to
    • recite an obligatory prayer each day, facing in the direction of the Qiblih (the Point of Adoration)
    • read the sacred writings of their faith each morning and evening

Other laws and ordinances

  • Bahá'ís in good health between the ages of 15 and 70 observe a nineteen-day sunrise-to-sunset fast each year March 2 to March 20, during the Bahá'í month of `Alá.
  • There are no dietary restrictions, but Bahá'ís are forbidden to drink alcohol or to take recreational drugs, as these interfere with an individual's spiritual growth and progress. The use of opium is particularly condemned in the Writings. Tobacco is not forbidden but is discouraged.
  • Bahá'ís are generally expected to make a financial contribution to the faith, but soliciting of funds from individuals is prohibited and contributions from people who are not registered Bahá'ís are not accepted. Distinct from the general Bahá'í funds is the law of Huqu'u'llah ("Right of God"), which requires Bahá'ís to pay 19% of their net income (after subtracting all necessary expenses). In the case of both Huqu'u'llah and the general funds contributions are confidential and the amount paid is a matter of individual conscience.
  • Family life is, in the Bahá'í view, a cornerstone of society. Marriage is encouraged. Marriage is permitted only between a man and a woman; homosexual relationships are forbidden in Bahá'í law.
    • Couples wishing to marry must obtain the consent of all living natural parents, as the Bahá'í teachings state that marriage is more than a union of individuals; it is the union of families.
    • Interreligious marriages are permitted, and interracial marriages are encouraged.
    • Chastity is required, i.e. sexual intercourse only within marriage.
    • Divorce is permitted, although regarded with the utmost seriousness, and is granted if, after a year of separation, the couple is unable to reconcile their differences.
    • Parents are required to provide an education to their children. If resources permit for only one child to be educated, the Bahá'í Faith says that a daughter should receive this education, as she is the first educator to her future children.
  • Bahá'ís should obey the decisions made by their elected local and national spiritual assemblies (elected religious councils) and the Universal House of Justice. If they continuously fail to do so in a way that endangers the faith they may be sanctioned: national assemblies are authorised to remove "administrative rights" (to vote and be elected, attend meetings with an administrative function and make financial contributions); the Universal House of Justice has the authority to expel members from the community and declare a person a "Covenant-Breaker". In accordance with the instructions given by `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'ís are expected to "shun" covenant-breakers, i.e. avoid personal contact. Most people who disobey the laws or institutions of the Faith are not considered "covenant-breakers", however.


The Bahá'í calendar was established by the Báb. The year consists of 19 months of 19 days, and 4 or 5 intercalary days, to make a full solar year. The New Year (called Naw Rúz) occurs on the vernal equinox, March 21, at the end of the month of fasting. Bahá'í communities gather at the beginning of each month at a meeting called a "feast" for worship, consultation and socializing. While the name may seem to suggest that an elaborate meal is served, that is not necessarily the case. Sometimes refreshments are plentiful, but they can be as simple as bread and water. Bahá'ís observe 11 Holy Days throughout the year, with work suspended on 9 of these. These days commemorate important anniversaries in the history of the Faith.

For more information see: Bahá'í calendar


Most Bahá'í meetings occur in individuals' homes, local Bahá'í centers, or rented facilities. Worldwide, there are currently only seven Bahá'í Houses of Worship, with an eighth under construction. The name used in the Bahá'í writings for a House of Worship is Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (Dawning-place of the Remembrance of God). The Mashriqu'l-Adhkár forms the center of a complex of institutions of the Bahá'í community.

Involvement in the life of society

Bahá'ís actively promote issues of social justice and spirituality wherever they are found, holding the concept of the unity of mankind as the standard for their actions. Bahá'ís have also become increasingly involved in projects of social and economic development around the world [21].

Bahá'u'lláh wrote of the need for world government in this age of humanity's collective life. Because of this emphasis Bahá'ís have actively supported the United Nations since its inception. The Bahá'í International Community has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and with the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF, and it has undertaken joint development programs with United Nations agencies. (See this article for further information on the relationship between the Bahá'í International Community and the United Nations.)

See also


  • Available online here.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois 60091. ISBN 0-87743-172-8. Available online here.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá, Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (Ed.) (1982). Selections from the Writings of `Abdu'l-Bahá. The Camelot Press Limited, Southampton. ISBN 0-87743-190-6. Available online here.
  • Bahá'í International Community (2002). Bahá'í Development Projects: A Global Process of Learning. Retrieved December 29, 2004.
  • Bahá'í International Community (2002). The Bahá'í International Community and the United Nations. Retrieved December 29, 2004.
  • Bahá'í International Community (2002). The Bahá'í World. Retrieved December 29, 2004.
  • Bahá'u'lláh, translated by Shoghi Effendi (1983). Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois 60091. ISBN 0-87743-187-5. Available online here.
  • British Broadcasting Corporation (2002). BBC Religion and Ethics Special: Bahá'í. Retrieved December 29, 2004.
  • Britannica (Eds.) (1992). Britannica Book of the Year. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Chicago,. .
  • Browne, E.G. (1891). A Traveller’s Narrative. Cambridge.
  • Commisioned by the Universal House of Justice (2001). Century of Light. Nine Pines, Canada. ISBN 0-88867-115-6. Available online here.
  • Effendi, Shoghi (1974). God Passes By. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois 60091. ISBN 0-87743-020-9. Available online here.
  • Uzzell, Charles (2001). Some History of the Bahá'í Faith. Retrieved December 29, 2004.

External links

Official websites

Unofficial websites

  • Bahá'í Faith Index, extensive site with links to over 3000 Bahá'í-related web sites, maintained by an individual Bahá'í.
  • Bahá'í Library Online, an independent, academically-oriented site with a large number of primary and secondary source materials on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Bahá'í Prayers, Prayers of Bahá'u'lláh, The Báb and `Abdu'l-Bahá in English and many other languages.
  • BBC Religion and Ethics special: Bahá'í , BBC on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Ocean, a privately-developed, free downloadable reference library and research engine, containing the full text of the Bahá'í writings in English, and over 1000 volumes from among the world's religious literature. Smaller selections in six other major languages. Typographical accuracy of texts varies.

Usage note: The correct orthographies are "Bahá'í", "Bahá'ís", "Báb", "Bahá'u'lláh", and "`Abdu'l-Bahá". Bahá'ís use a particular and very precise transcription of Arabic in their publications. Because of typographic limitations, the forms "Bahai", "Bahais", "Bab", and "Bahaullah" are often used as a common spelling or as satisfactory for certain electronic uses.

Last updated: 06-01-2005 22:40:56
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