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List of subsistence techniques

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The following is a list of subsistence techniques:

  • Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging
    • freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment
    • gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields
  • Cultivation
    • Horticulture
      - plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools.
    • Agriculture
      - cultivation involving continuous use of crop land, and is more labor-intensive than horticulture.
  • Pastoralism
    - the raising of grazing animals
    • Pastoral nomadism: all members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year.
    • Transhumance or agro-pastoralism : part of the society follows the herd, while the other part maintains a home village.
    • Ranch agriculture: non-nomadic pastoralism with a defined territory
  • Alternative ends
    - people devote their time, resources, and energy to five broad categories of ends: subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and rent.
    • Subsistence fund : work is done to replace calories lost through life activities.
    • Replacement fund : work is expended maintaining the technology necessary for life.
    • Social fund : work is expended to establish and maintain social ties.
      • Ceremonial fund : work is expended to fulfill ritual obligations.
    • Rent fund : work is expended to satisfy the obligations owed political or economic superiors.
  • Distribution and Exchange
    • Redistribution
    • Reciprocity
      - exchange between social equals.
    • Potlatching
      - a widely studied ritual in which sponsors (helped by their entourages) gave away resources and manufactured wealth while generating prestige for themselves.
    • LETS - Local Exchange Trading Systems.

See also

Last updated: 06-02-2005 12:34:52
Last updated: 09-12-2005 02:39:13