(Redirected from Subsistence
The following is a list of subsistence techniques:
Hunting and Gathering, also known as Foraging
freeganism involves gathering of discarded food in the context of an urban environment
gleaning involves the gathering of food that traditional farmers have left behind in their fields
- plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools.
- cultivation involving continuous use of crop land, and is more labor-intensive than horticulture.
- the raising of grazing animals
- Pastoral nomadism: all members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year.
Transhumance or agro-pastoralism : part of the society follows the herd, while the other part maintains a home village.
Ranch agriculture: non-nomadic pastoralism with a defined territory
- Alternative ends
- people devote their time, resources, and energy to five broad categories of ends: subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and rent.
- Subsistence fund : work is done to replace calories lost through life activities.
- Replacement fund : work is expended maintaining the technology necessary for life.
- Social fund : work is expended to establish and maintain social ties.
- Ceremonial fund : work is expended to fulfill ritual obligations.
- Rent fund : work is expended to satisfy the obligations owed political or economic superiors.
Distribution and Exchange
- exchange between social equals.
- a widely studied ritual in which sponsors (helped by their entourages) gave away resources and manufactured wealth while generating prestige for themselves.
LETS - Local Exchange Trading Systems.
Last updated: 06-02-2005 12:34:52
Last updated: 09-12-2005 02:39:13