The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary






Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt

Pharaoh Name Dates (BC)
Ahmose I 1570-1546
Amenhotep I 1551-1524
Thutmose I 1525-1518
Thutmose II 1518-1504
Thutmose III 1503-1450
Hatshepsut 1498-1483
Amenhotep II 1453-1419
Thutmose IV 1419-1386
Amenhotep III 1386-1349
Akhnaten (Amenhotep IV) 1350-1334
Smenkhkare 1336-1334
Tutankhamun 1334-1325
Kheperkheprure Ay 1325-1321
Horemheb 1321-1293

The Eighteenth Dynasty was founded by Ahmose, the brother of Kamose, the last ruler of the Seventeenth Dynasty . Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the hated Hyksos rulers. With this dynasty, the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt ended, and the New Kingdom of Egypt or the Egyptian Empire began.

Highlights of this dynasty include: Queen Hatshepsut, who effectively ruled during the minority of her stepson, but was later considered a usurper; the first formal relations with foreign countries under Amenhotep III, of which some records were included in the el Amarna letters; the first expression of monotheism under Akhenaton, but whose religion offended many in power, and who late suffered damnatio memoriae. Although modern students consider the monotheism of Akhenaton the most important event of this period, for centuries this period was best known as when the Hebrews were slaves in Egypt.

Scholars believed that Akhenaton caused a great deal of antipathy by his devotion to his God Aten, which contributed to the end of this dynasty. Its final years were clearly shakey: the unidentified widow of king Nibhuruyiras (identified with either Akhenaton or Tutankhamun) wrote to Suppiluliumas I, king of the Hittites, asking him to send one of his sons to be her husband and rule Egypt. Suppiluliumas sent an ambassador to investigate, who reported that the situation was accurately described; however the destined Hittite prince died en route, and the last two members of this dynasty came from officials of the royal court.

The Nineteenth dynasty of Ramesses I succeeded it in 1293.

See: History of Ancient Egypt

Last updated: 10-18-2005 23:02:42
The contents of this article are licensed from under the GNU Free Documentation License. How to see transparent copy