The Southern Hemisphere is the part of Earth's surface that is south of the equator.
It contains four continents (Africa, Australia, South America and Antarctica) separated by four oceans (South Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and Antarctic Ocean).
Summer occurs around December to February and winter around June to August.
This region has historically been seen as less developed and poorer than the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Southern Hemisphere is also significantly less polluted than the Northern Hemisphere due to lower overall population densities, lower levels of industrialisation, and smaller land masses across the southern temperate zone.
For all the Southern Hemisphere most of the year and most of the Southern Hemisphere all year round, the sun passes from East to West in the North, so causing sun-cast shadows to turn anticlockwise through the day.
The South Pole is oriented towards the center of our galaxy, and this, combined with clearer skies makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere.
Continents and countries
Continents in the southern hemisphere:
Countries primarily in the southern hemisphere that are in Africa:
Countries primarily in the southern hemisphere that are in Asia:
Countries primarily in the southern hemisphere that are in Australasia and Oceania:
Countries in the southern hemisphere that are in South America: