The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary







The Republic of Ecuador is a country in northwestern South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands (Colón Archipelago) in the Pacific, about 965 km (about 600 mi) west of the mainland. Ecuador straddles the equator (Ecuador is the Spanish word for "equator") and has an area of 272,045 sq km (105,037 sq mi). Quito is the country’s capital.

República del Ecuador
(In Detail)
National motto: La Paz y el Bienestar, La Gloria y el Triunfo
(Spanish; "The peace and wellbeing, the glory and triumph")
Official language Spanish
Capital Quito
Largest City Guayaquil
President Lucio Gutiérrez
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 71st
283,560 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 62nd

 - Date

From Spain

24 May, 1822

Currency US dollar
Time zone UTC -5
National anthem Salve, Oh Patria
Internet TLD .ec
Calling Code 593


Main article: History of Ecuador

The Republic of Ecuador was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Colombia and Venezuela).

Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors.

In 1941 a territorial conflict started between Ecuador and Peru which led to the "Protocolo de Rio de Janeiro" signed in January 29, 1942. Still several wars between the two countries carried on until October 26, 1999 when presidents Jamil Mahuad (Ecuador) and Alberto Fujimori (Peru) signed the "Acta de Brasilia". Peru gave 1 square-kilometer (called "Tiwintza") to Ecuador inside its territory where 14 soldiers are buried; also both countries signed commerce and navigation agreements in which Ecuador have unrestricted navigation rights on the Amazon River.


Main article: Politics of Ecuador

On November 24, 2002, Lucio Gutiérrez won the presidential elections. He became president on January 15, 2003.


see Provinces of Ecuador


Main article: Geography of Ecuador

Map Of Equador

The capital is Quito and the largest city is Guayaquil.


Main article: Economy of Ecuador

Gustavo Noboa , who assumed the presidency in January 2000, has managed to pass substantial economic reforms and mend relations with international financial institutions. Ecuador completed its first standby agreement since 1986 when the IMF Board approved a 10 December 2001 disbursement of $96 million, the final installment of a $300 million standby credit agreement. In February 2003, newly installed president Lucio Gutierrez faced a budget gap and massive foreign debt. He has pledged to use oil revenues to pay off debt and is seeking additional IMF support.


Main article: Demographics of Ecuador

The demographic composition of Ecuador's current population is ethnically and racially diverse. Today the majority of Ecuadorians are mestizos (of mixed Spanish and Amerindian ancestry), who constitute just over 65 per cent of the population. Second in numbers are the Amerindians of the various Andean and Amazonian nationalities, which combined constitute the country's largest minority, accounting for approximately 25%. Whites are mainly Creoles, unmixed descendants of Spanish colonist, and account for 7% of the Ecuadorian population. A small minority of Afro-Ecuadorians, including Mulattos and Zambos, constitute the remainder.


Main article: Culture of Ecuador

The culture of Ecuador mirrors the demographics of the country itself, and is a rich amalgam of various influences. Much like the ancestry of the mestizo majority, the national culture is also a mixture of both European and Amerindian influences, infused with various other elements inherited through the descendants of the country’s African slave past.

In addition to the national culture, many of the existing indigenous communities also practise their own autochthonous cultures.


See also

External links

  • Culture Montubia
  • Destination360 Destination: Ecuador a travel guide featuring The Galapagos Islands, Quito, Cuenca, and the Amazon with virtual tours

Countries in South America
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela
Dependencies: Falkland Islands | French Guiana

South American Community of Nations (SACN)
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | Guyana | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Uruguay | Venezuela

Last updated: 02-07-2005 07:25:35
Last updated: 04-25-2005 03:06:01