Samaria, Sumaria or Shomron (Standard Hebrew שׁוֹמְרוֹן Šomron, Tiberian Hebrew שָׁמְרוֹן Šāmərôn, Arabic سامريّون Sāmariyyūn) is a term used for the mountainous northern part of the West Bank. In modern times, the name "Samaria" is most often used by Zionists when speaking a language other than Hebrew. Others prefer to use the collective name "West Bank" rather than "Judea and Samaria". See Palestinian territories for further discussion.
To the north, Samaria is bounded by the Esdraelon valley; to the east - by the Jordan river; to the west, it is bounded by the Carmel Ridge (in the north) and the Sharon plain (in the south); to the south, it is bounded by Judea (the Jerusalem mountains). Samarian hills are not very high, seldom reaching the height of over 800 meters. Samaria's climate is more hospitable than the climate of Judea.
Major cities in this region include Ariel, Jenin, Nablus/Shechem, Qalqilya and Tulkarm.
Samaria was taken by Israeli forces during the 1967 Six-Day War from Jordan. Jordan withdrew all claims to the West Bank, and thus Samaria, in 1988; later on, this status was confirmed by the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty of 1993. Jordan instead recognizes the Palestinian Authority as sovereign in the territory. In the Oslo accords of 1994, responsibility for the administration over some of the territory of Samaria was transferred to the Palestinian Authority.
Israel has sometimes been criticized for the policy of establishing settlements in Samaria. Israel claims the legal status of the land is unclear, while the United Nations, the United States and the European Union disagree. See Israeli settlements for a proper discussion.
It is now represented by the hamlet of Sebustieh, containing about three hundred inhabitants. The ruins of the ancient town are all scattered over the hill, down the sides of which they have rolled. The shafts of about one hundred of what must have been grand Corinthian columns are still standing, and attract much attention, although nothing definite is known regarding them. (compare Micah 1:6.)
It may be noticed that the distance between Samaria and Jerusalem, the respective capitals of the two kingdoms, is only 35 miles in a direct line.
Ethnically, the Samaritans are the inhabitants who came to Samaria after the beginning of the Jewish Babylonian Exile. 2 Kings 17 and Josephus (Ant 9.277–91) claim that the Samaritans are descendants of deportees brought into the region of Samaria by the Assyrians from other lands they had conquered, including Cuthah .
Samaritanism is a religion related to Judaism in that it accepts the Torah as its holy book, though little of latter Jewish theology, leading to a deep antagonism between Samaritans and Jews. Their temple was at Mount Gerizim, not Jerusalem, and was destroyed by the Macabbean (Hasmonean) John Hyrcanus late in the second century BC, although their descendants still worship among its ruins. The antagonism between Samaritans and Jews is important in understanding the New Testament stories of "The Good Samaritan" and the Samaritan Woman .
Capital of the Kingdom of Israel
Shomron (Samaria) is literally a watch-mountain or a watch-tower. In the heart of the mountains of Israel, a few miles north-west of Shechem, stands the "hill of Shomeron," a solitary mountain, a great "mamelon". It is an oblong hill, with steep but not inaccessible sides, and a long flat top.
Omri, the king of Israel, purchased this hill from Shemer its owner for two talents of silver, and built on its broad summit the city to which he gave the name of "Shomeron", i.e., Samaria, as the new capital of his kingdom instead of Tirzah (1 Kings 16:24). As such it possessed many advantages. Here Omri resided during the last six years of his reign.
As the result of an unsuccessful war with Syria, he appears to have been obliged to grant to the Syrians the right to "make streets in Samaria", i.e., probably permission to the Syrian merchants to carry on their trade in the Israelite capital. This would imply the existence of a considerable Syrian population.
It was the only great city of Palestine created by the sovereign. All the others had been already consecrated by patriarchal tradition or previous possession. But Samaria was the choice of Omri alone. He, indeed, gave to the city which he had built the name of its former owner, but its especial connection with himself as its founder is proved by the designation which it seems Samaria bears in Assyrian inscriptions, "Beth-khumri" ("the house or palace of Omri"), Stanley.
Samaria, the city, was frequently besieged. In the days of Ahab, Benhadad II came up against it with thirty-two vassal kings, but was defeated with a great slaughter (1 Kings 20:1-21). A second time, next year, he assailed it; but was again utterly routed, and was compelled to surrender to Ahab (20:28-34), whose army, as compared with that of Benhadad, was no more than "two little flocks of kids."
In the days of Jehoram this Benhadad again laid siege to Samaria, during which the city was reduced to the direst extremities. But just when success seemed to be within their reach, they suddenly broke off the siege, alarmed by a mysterious noise of chariots and horses and a great army, and fled, leaving their camp with all its contents behind them. The famished inhabitants of the city were soon relieved from the abundance of the spoil of the Syrian camp; and it came to pass, according to the word of Elisha, that "a measure of fine flour was sold for a shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel, in the gates of Samaria" (2 Kings 7:1-20).
Shalmaneser V invaded Israel in the days of Hoshea, and reduced it to vassalage. He laid siege to Samaria (723 BC), which held out for three years, and was at length captured by Sargon II, who completed the conquest Shalmaneser had begun (2 Kings 18:9-12; 17:3), and removed vast numbers of the tribes into captivity. See Lost ten tribes.
This city, after passing through various vicissitudes, was given by the emperor Augustus to Herod the Great, who rebuilt it, and called it Sebaste (the Greek form of Augustus) in honour of the emperor.
New Testament reference
The New Testament only mentions it is in Acts 8:5-14, where it is recorded that Philip went down to the city of Samaria and preached there. In the time of Jesus, Western Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Samaria occupied the centre of Palestine (John 4:4). It is called in the Talmud the "land of the Cuthim".
Initial text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897. Please update as needed.
Lost Ten Tribes = specifically relating to the Kingdom of Israel with its capital at Samaria and the wars that took place with the Kingdom of Judah before the fall of the Kingdom of Judah and its occupants becoming lost to the pages of history. However, many theories abound as to what became of the "lost ten tribes" and they advocates do not necessarily agree with each and in some cases are quite antagonistic towards each other.
- The name of samarium is not related to Samaria.
Last updated: 05-12-2005 14:59:59
Last updated: 05-13-2005 07:56:04