The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary







The Xibe (Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 Xb) are a Chinese ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

The Xibe originally lived on the Nonni River. They are known as one of the nine states that were defeated by Nurhaci in the Battle of Gure in 1593. They were under loose domination of the Khorchin Mongols even after the Khorchin came under the control of the Manchu Qing Dynasty.

The Xibe started to make direct contact with the Qing Dynasty when it conducted military campaigns against Russia. They provided logistical support to the Qing. In 1692 the Khorchin dedicated the Xibe, the Gūwalca and the Daur to the Kangxi Emperor in exchange for silver. The Xibe was incorporated into the Eight Banners and were stationed in Cicihar and other cities in Manchuria.

After conquering Eastern Turkestan, the Qianlong Emperor garrisoned part of the Xibe there in 1764 to defend the new frontier. They formed a community in the Cabcal region.

The Xibe in northeast China speak Chinese as their first language. In Xinjiang, descendants of the Qing dynasty military garrison preserve their language, which is very close to Manchu. They use the Xibe script , a slightly revised Manchu script.

The Xibe believe that they are descendants of the Xianbei.

Dr. Pamela Kyle Crossley, professor of history at Dartmouth College, asserts that the Russians named Siberia after the Sibe/Xibe.

Last updated: 05-07-2005 14:14:17
Last updated: 05-07-2005 18:09:53