Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. He was founder of the Flavian dynasty and acceded the throne in the end of the Year of the four emperors.
He was born in the Sabine country near Reate. His father Flavius Sabinus was a tax collector and money-lender on a small scale; his mother Vespasia Polla was the sister of a senator.
After having served with the army in Thrace and been quaestor in Crete and Cyrene, Vespasian rose to be aedile and praetor, having meanwhile married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of an equestrian, by whom he had two sons, Titus and Domitian, afterwards emperors, and one daughter Domitilla. Both his wife and daughter died before he held a magistracy.
Having already served in Germania, he participated in the Roman invasion of Britain under the Emperor Claudius, where he distinguished himself in command of the Legio II Augusta under Aulus Plautius. He reduced Vectis or the Isle of Wight and penetrated to the borders of Somerset in England. In 51 he was for a brief space consul; in 63 he went as governor to Africa, where, according to Tacitus (ii.97), his rule was "infamous and odious"; according to Suetonius (Vesp. 4), "upright and, highly honourable".
He went with Nero's retinue to Greece, and in 66 was appointed to conduct the war in Judaea, which was threatening unrest throughout the East. According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. Vespasian eventually believed that this prophecy applied to him, and found a number of omens and oracles and portents that reinforced this belief.
He also found encouragement in Licinius Mucianus, the governor of Syria; and although a strict disciplinarian, and reformer of abuses, Vespasian had a soldiery thoroughly devoted to him. All eyes in the East were now upon him; Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him; and while he was at Caesarea, he was proclaimed emperor (July 1, 69), first by the army in Egypt, and then by his troops in Judaea (July 11).
Nevertheless, Vitellius, the occupant of the throne, had on his side the veteran legions of Gaul and the Rhineland, Rome's best troops. But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him in fact master of half of the Roman world.
His troops entered Italy on the north-east under the leadership of M. Antonius Primus, defeated the army of Vitellius at Bedriacum (or Betriacum) (which had awaited him in Mevania), sacked Cremona and advanced on Rome, which they entered after furious fighting and a frightful confusion, in which the Capitol was destroyed by fire.
On receiving the tidings of his rival's defeat and death at Alexandria, new emperor at once forwarded supplies of urgently needed corn to Rome, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason. While in Egypt he visited the Temple of Serapis, where reportedly he experienced a vision, and later was confronted by two laborers who were convinced that he possessed a divine power which could work miracles.
Leaving the war in Judaea to his son Titus, he arrived at Rome in 70. He at once devoted his energies to repairing the evils caused by civil war. He restored discipline in the army, which under Vitellius had become utterly demoralized, and, with the co-operation of the Senate, put the government and the finances on a sound footing.
He renewed old taxes and instituted new, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials. By his own example of simplicity of life, he put to shame the luxury and extravagance of the Roman nobles and initiated in many respects a marked improvement in the general tone of society.
As censor he reformed the Senatorial and Equestrian orders, removing unfit and unworthy members and promoting good and able men, among them Gnaeus Julius Agricola. At the same time, he made it more dependent upon the emperor, by exercising an influence upon its composition.
He altered the constitution of the Praetorian Guard, in which only Italians, formed into nine cohorts, were enrolled. In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign. "The peace of Vespasian" passed into a proverb.
In 78 Agricola went to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his arms into North Wales and the Isle of Anglesey. In the following year Vespasian died, on June 23.
The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and equestrians, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and rhetors, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as 1000 gold pieces a year. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor.
Pliny the Elder's great work, the Natural History, was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to Vespasian's son Titus. Some of the philosophers who talked idly of the good old times of the republic, and thus indirectly encouraged conspiracy, provoked him into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this profession, but only one, Helvidius Priscus, was put to death, and he had affronted the emperor by studied insults. "I will not kill a dog that barks at me," were words honestly expressing the temper of Vespasian. Vespasian was indeed noted for mildness and a healthy sense of justice. For example, he helped his late adversary Vitellius' daughter find a suitable husband and even provided her with the dowry. Much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautifying of Rome: a new forum, the splendid temple of Peace, the public baths and the vast Colosseum.
To the last, Vespasian was a plain, blunt soldier, with a demonstrated strength of character and ability, and with a steady purpose to establish good order and secure the prosperity and welfare of his subjects. In his habits he was punctual and regular, transacting his business early in the morning, and enjoying his siesta after a drive.
He did not quite have the distinguished bearing looked for in an emperor. He was free in his conversation, and his humour, of which he had a good deal, was apt to take the form of rather coarse jokes. He could jest even in his last moments. "Alas, I think I'm turning into a God," he whispered to those around him. There is something very characteristic in the exclamation he is said to have uttered in his last illness, "An emperor ought to die standing."
This entry was based on the entry from the 1911 Encyclopędia Britannica.