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The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. The first dynasty reigned from 661 to 750. Ironically, the Quraishi clan from which the Umayyads originated had originally been bitter enemies of Muhammad.

The Courtyard of the Omayyad Mosque, Damascus
The Courtyard of the Omayyad Mosque, Damascus

Muawiyah had been the governor of Syria under the 3rd caliph and his kinsman, Uthman ibn Affan. After the assassination of Uthman, he was replaced by the new caliph, Ali Ben Abu Talib. Rather than relinquish his post, Muawiyah took up a rebellion against Ali. The two fought many battles, and eventually they agreed to partition the Muslim empire. However, Ali was assassinated in 661, and Muawiyah declared himself caliph of all Muslim lands. This established the Umayyad dynasty, the capital was moved to Damascus

The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab in 750, following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids. An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.


Umayyad Rulers

The Umayyad Caliphs

Umayyad Emirs of Cordoba

Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba

See also History of Islam, Caliphate

External links

  • Ummayad Lineage Chart

Last updated: 02-06-2005 22:43:25
Last updated: 05-02-2005 11:49:07