Online Encyclopedia Search Tool

Your Online Encyclopedia


Online Encylopedia and Dictionary Research Site

Online Encyclopedia Free Search Online Encyclopedia Search    Online Encyclopedia Browse    welcome to our free dictionary for your research of every kind

Online Encyclopedia


(Redirected from Right to vote)

Suffrage is the right to vote, or the exercise of that right.

Universal suffrage is the extension of voting privileges to all adults, without distinction to race, sex, belief or social status. It is usually considered the hallmark of modern democracies.

Equal suffrage is a term sometimes confused with Universal suffrage, although its meaning is the removal of graded votes, where a voter could possess a number of votes in accordance with income, wealth or social status.

Census suffrage is the opposite of Equal suffrage: the suffrage is limited, usually to the propertied classes, but can still be universal, i.e. including for instance women or blacks granted they meet the census.

Women's suffrage was the goal of the Suffragettes, who led a major Liberal and Democratic movement of the early 20th century, protesting vigorously for many years demanding equality with men and the right to vote. Prominent suffragettes include Emmeline Pankhurst, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Historically, many groups have been excluded from the right to vote, on various grounds. Sometimes this exclusion is an explicit policy, clearly stated in the electoral laws; at other times it is implemented in practice by provisions that may seem to have little to do with the exclusion actually being implemented (e.g. poll taxes and literacy requirements used to keep African-Americans in the pre-Civil Rights Era American South from voting.) And sometimes a group will be permitted to vote, but the electoral system or institutions of government will be purposely designed to give them less influence than other more favoured groups.

The legitimacy of democratic government is derived from suffrage.


Ethnic or racial exclusion

See universal suffrage

Exclusion on grounds of class

Up until the 19th century, many Western democracies had property qualifications in their electoral laws, that meant that only people with a certain degree of wealth could vote. Today these laws have largely been abolished. However in some "democratic" countries this still applies in practice (although perhaps unintentionally) even though not in law; most democratic countries require an address for the electors to be qualified to vote, this, in practice excludes all those who are not fortunate enough to have achieved enough wealth as to permit them to own or rent living quarters.

Exclusion on the grounds of gender

See women's suffrage

Exclusion on the grounds of age

Despite the boast of universal suffrage, all modern democracies require voters to meet age qualifications to vote and deny the right to vote to individuals below the voting age. Often overlooked, young people under the voting age make up 20-50% of the population in some nations, and have no political representation. Worldwide voting ages are not consistent, fluctuating between nations and indeed within nations, usually between 15 and 21. Following movements to enfranchise women, minorities and the poor, a world wide youth suffrage movement is now brewing. An integral part of the wider youth rights movement, youth suffrage proponents seek to lower or abolish the voting age. Of most notoriety is the proposal to lower the national voting age to 16 in the United Kingdom.

Right to vote today

Today, in most democracies, the right to vote is granted without discrimination with regard to race, ethnicity, class or gender. citizens above the voting age in a country can normally vote in its elections, although resident aliens can vote in local elections in some countries. In some countries exceptions are made for citizens of countries with which they have close links (e.g. some members of the Commonwealth, and the members of the European Union).

It may be startling to many that the USA is one of few nations that lack a Constitutional right to vote--a situation that U.S. Representative Jesse Jackson Jr. is attempting to change.

Many nations have disenfranchisement of sentenced prisoners, in the USA voting privileges are denied to prisoners by some states, however several others (most nations of the European Union) allow prisoners to vote, regardless of time served, nature of the crime, etc. Some countries (and U.S. states) also deny the right to vote to those convicted of serious crimes, even after they are released from prison. In some cases (e.g. the felon disfranchisement laws found in many U.S. States) the denial of the right to vote is automatic on conviction of a serious criminal offence; in other cases (e.g. provisions found in many parts of continental Europe) the denial of the right to vote is an additional penalty that the court can choose to impose, over and above the penalty of imprisonment, such as in France or Germany. Another exemption from the right to vote is made by some countries for people in psychiatric facilities. In the United Kingdom, peers who are members of the House of Lords (all up until reforms in 1999) are also excluded from voting in general elections. In all democratic countries, young people are excluded from voting in local and national elections, though the voting age is set at different ages ranging from 15 to 21. In Canada, only 2 adult citizens cannot vote, the Chief electoral officer, and the deputy chief electoral officer.

See also

Last updated: 11-10-2004 23:48:12