- This article is about the capital city of Canada. For other meanings see Ottawa (disambiguation).
City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
|Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant
||2,778.64 sq. km.
- Total (2001)
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Mauril Bélanger, Don Boudria, Ed Broadbent, Marlene Catterall, Marc Godbout, David McGuinty, Gordon O'Connor, Pierre Poilievre
John Baird, Jean-Marc Lalonde, Dalton McGuinty, Phil McNeely, Madeleine Meilleur, Richard Patten, Norm Sterling, Jim Watson
Ottawa City Council
City of Ottawa
Ottawa is the capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest city. It is located in the Ottawa Valley in the eastern part of the province of Ontario, at the northern edge of the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. The population of the city proper is 808,391, while the population of the larger Ottawa region is 1,146,790 (2004). The mayor of the city is Bob Chiarelli.
Ottawa sits on the south bank of the Ottawa River, around the mouths of the Rideau River and Rideau Canal. The oldest part of the city (including what remains of Bytown) is known as Lower Town and occupies an area between the canal and the rivers. Across the canal to the west lies Centretown, which is the city's financial and commercial hub. Between here and the Ottawa River, the slight elevation of Parliament Hill is home to many of the capital's landmark government buildings, and is the Legislative seat of Canada.
The City of Ottawa includes many urban areas. The main one extends for considerable distance to the east, west and south of the centre, and includes the former cities of Gloucester, Nepean and Vanier the former village of Rockcliffe Park and the suburban communities of Manotick and Orleans as well as Aylmer, Hull and Gatineau in the province of Quebec (pop. 827,854). Around the main urban area city is an extensive greenbelt, administered by the National Capital Commission for conservation and leisure, and comprising mostly forest and marshland. In addition to the main urban area there is the Kanata urban area consisting of the urbanized part of the former city of Kanata and the former village of Stittsville (pop. 70,320). There are also a number of satellite towns and rural communities that are also urban areas (urban fringes) that lie beyond the greenbelt but are administratively part of the Ottawa municipality. These are Constance Bay (pop. 2,327); Kars (pop. 1,539); Metcalfe (pop. 1,610); Munster (pop. 1,390); Osgoode (pop. 2,571); and Richmond (pop. 3,287)
Across the Ottawa River, which forms the border between Ontario and Quebec, lies the city of Gatineau. Although administered separately, the two cities both fall within the remit of the National Capital Commission and for many purposes are considered a single metropolitan area, called Canada's Capital Region.
Ottawa itself is a single-tiered city, meaning it is in itself a census division and has no county or regional municipality government above it. Ottawa is bounded on the west by Renfrew County and Lanark County; on the south by the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville and the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry; on the east by the United Counties of Prescott and Russell; and on the north by the Regional County Municipality of Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais and the City of Gatineau.
Ottawa is made up of 11 historic townships, 10 of which are from historic Carleton County and one from historic Russell. They are Cumberland , Fitzroy , Gloucester , Goulbourn, Huntley , March , Marlborough , Nepean , North Gower , Osgoode and Torbolton .
Ottawa is served by VIA Rail passenger service, by Macdonald-Cartier International Airport (better known as Ottawa International) and by a number of long distance bus companies, including Greyhound .
Ottawa's main mass transit company is OC Transpo. The bus transit system includes the Transitway, a network of mostly grade-separated, extremely high-frequency, reserved bus rapid transit lanes with full stations instead of stops. There is also a pilot-project diesel light rail system called the O-Train. See Ottawa Rapid Transit. Both OC Transpo and the Quebec-based Société de transport de l'Outaouais (STO) operate bus services between Ottawa and Gatineau.
The Rideau Canal, which starts in Kingston, Ontario, winds its way through the city. The final flight of locks on the canal are adjacent to the Parliament Buildings. Also, during the winter season the canal is usually open and is a form of transportation downtown for about 8 km for ice skaters (from about Dow's Lake to the Rideau Centre) and forms the world's longest skating rink.
Ottawa sits at the confluence of three major rivers: the Ottawa River, the Gatineau River and the Rideau River. The Ottawa and Gatineau rivers were historically important in the logging and lumber industries, and the Rideau as part of the Rideau Canal system connecting the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River with the Ottawa River.
See also List of airports in the Ottawa area.
Notable buildings and institutions
The changing of the guard in front of the Parliament of Canada.
Some of the notable buildings in Ottawa include the Parliament Buildings, where Canada's government resides; 24 Sussex Drive, the home of the Prime Minister of Canada; and Rideau Hall, the home of the Governor-General of Canada. Ottawa also has most of Canada's national museums, including the National Gallery of Canada, Canadian War Museum, Canada Science and Technology Museum, Canada Aviation Museum and Canadian Museum of Nature. The Canadian Museum of Civilization is located across the Ottawa River in Gatineau, Quebec. Ottawa is also the home of the University of Ottawa, Carleton University, and Algonquin College. Federal buildings in the National Capital Region are managed by the Public Works Canada , while most of the federal lands in the Region are managed by the National Capital Commission or NCC; its control of much undeveloped land gives the NCC a great deal of influence over the city's development.
As with other capital cities, the word Ottawa is also used to refer by metonymy to the country's federal government, especially as opposed to provincial or municipal authorities.
See also: list of Ottawa buildings
- Winterlude is an annual winter carnival held each year in February. It is focused on the Rideau Canal.
- Canada Day is one of Ottawa's most important holidays and people from across the nation visit to celebrate the nation's birthday.
Ottawa's primary employers are the Canadian federal government and high technology. Major companies such as Nortel, Alcatel, JDS Uniphase, Mitel, Bell Canada, TELUS, and Corel have offices in the city.
Ottawa is home to two major league sports team, the Ottawa Senators ice hockey team (established 1992) of the National Hockey League and the Ottawa Renegades (established 2002) Canadian football team of the Canadian Football League. The Senators play at the Corel Centre and the Renegades at Frank Clair Stadium. Ottawa is also home to a minor league baseball team, the AAA farm team of the Baltimore Orioles, the Ottawa Lynx of the International League. Ottawa also has a major junior ice hockey team, the Ottawa 67's of the Ontario Hockey League. Ottawa's two major universities, Carleton University and the University of Ottawa both have athletic associations; the team names are the Carleton Ravens and the Ottawa Gee Gees respectively.
The city also supports many casual sporting activities, such as skating on the Rideau Canal or curling in winter, cycling and jogging along the Ottawa River and Rideau Canal in summer, skiing and hiking in the Greenbelt, and sailing on Lac Deschenes, part of the Ottawa River. During the coldest parts of winter there is ice fishing on the Ottawa river.
In addition to being the capital of Canada, Ottawa is politically diverse on a local field as well. Most of the city traditionally supports the Liberal, although only some parts of the city are truly safe Liberal areas. Perhaps the safest areas for the Liberals are the ones dominated by francophones, especially in Vanier, and Orleans. Central Ottawa is usually more left leaning and is very Liberal, but with the correct candidates the social democratic New Democratic Party can win ridings. Ottawa's suburbs are the swing areas, especially places like Nepean and, despite the francophone population, Orleans. South and West Ottawa are more Liberal, but can be caught up in populist Conservative tides. Moving away from the city core into the suburban fringes like Kanata and Barrhaven and into the rural areas the voters tend to be more and more Conservative. This is especially true in the former Townships of West Carleton , Rideau and Osgoode. However not all rural areas support the Conservative Party, Cumberland with a large number of francophones traditionally support the Liberals.
The Ottawa region was long home to First Nations peoples who were part of the Algonquin. The first European settlement in the Ottawa region was that of Philemon Wright who started a community on the Quebec side of the river in 1800. Wright discovered that transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Montreal was possible and Ottawa was soon booming based almost entirely off timber. The city grew even further in importance when the Rideau Canal was constructed by Colonel John By to connect Ottawa with Kingston which was then the colonial capital of Canada. Ottawa was then known as Bytown, but was incorporated as Ottawa in 1855.
Original city leaders of Bytown include a number of Wright's sons, most notably Ruggles Wright. Nicholas Sparks, Braddish Billings and Abraham Dow were the first to settle on the Ontario side of the Ottawa river.
On December 31, 1857, Queen Victoria was asked to choose a common capital for Canada East and Canada West (modern Quebec and Ontario) and chose Ottawa. There are old folk tales about how she made the choice: that she did so by sticking her hatpin on a map roughly halfway between Toronto and Montreal, or that she liked watercolours she had seen of the area. While such stories have no historical basis, they do illustrate how arbitrary the choice of Ottawa seemed to people. While Ottawa is now a major metropolis and Canada's fourth largest city, at the time it was only a small logging town in the hinterland, far away from the colony's main cities, Quebec City and Montreal in Canada East, and Kingston, and Toronto in Canada West. In fact, the Queen's advisors had her pick Ottawa for two important reasons: first, it was the only settlement of any significant size located right on the border of Canada East and Canada West (and is still on the Quebec/Ontario border today), so it was a clever compromise between the two colonies and their French and English populations; second, the War of 1812 had shown how vulnerable the major cities were to American attack, since they were all located very close to the border. Ottawa's position in the back country made it more defensible, while still allowing easy transportation via the Ottawa River to Canada East and the Rideau Canal to Canada West. Two other considerations were that Ottawa was at a point nearly exactly midway between Toronto and Quebec City (about 500 km as the crow flies) and that the small size of the town made it less likely that politically motivated mobs could go on a rampage and destroy government buildings, as had been the case in the previous Canadian capitals.
The original Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa was destroyed by fire on February 3, 1916. The House of Commons was temporarily relocated to the recently constructed Victoria Memorial Museum, currently the Canadian Museum of Nature, located about 1 km south of Parliament Hill on Metcalfe Street. A new Centre Block was completed in 1922, the centre-piece of which is a dominant gothic revival styled structure known as the Peace Tower which has become a common emblem of the city.
On September 5, 1945, only weeks after the end of World War II, Ottawa was the site of the event that many people consider to be the official start of the Cold War. A Soviet cipher clerk, Igor Gouzenko, defected from the Soviet embassy with over 100 secret documents. At first, the RCMP refused to take the documents, since the Soviets were still allies of Canada and Britain, and the newspapers were not interested in the story. After hiding out for a night in a neighbour's apartment listening to his own being searched, Gouzenko finally persuaded the RCMP to look at his evidence, which provided proof of a massive Soviet spy networking operating in western countries, and, indirectly, led to the discovery that the Soviets were working on an atomic bomb to match that of the Americans.
In 2001, the old city of Ottawa (estimated 2005 population 350,000) was amalgamated with the suburbs of Nepean (135,000), Kanata (70,000), Gloucester (120,000), Rockcliffe Park (2,100), Vanier (17,000) and Cumberland (55,000), and the rural townships of West Carleton (18,000), Osgoode (13,000), Rideau (18,000) and Goulbourn (24,000), along with the systems and infrastructure of the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton, to become one municipality. Ottawa-Carleton used to be just Carleton County before 1969 and consisted of what is now the City of Ottawa except for Cumberland.
See also: List of Ottawa mayors
According to the 2001 Statistics Canada census, there are 774,072 people, 310,132 households, and 210,875 families residing in the city. The population density is 278.6/km².
The lingustic makeup (mother tongue) of the city is 63.6% anglophone, 15.0% francophone, 0.9% both languages, 20.3% allophone.
The racial makeup of the city is 80.90% White, 4.54% Black, 3.62% Chinese, 2.84% South Asian, 2.67% Arab , 1.14% Southeast Asian, 1.13% Aboriginal, 0.85% Latin American, 0.66% West Asian , 0.64% Filipino, 0.20% Japanese, 0.19% Korean , 0.31% Other, 0.33% Multiple responses.
There are 210,875 families out of which 72.8% are married couples living together, 11.1% are common-law couples, and 13.2% have a female householder with no husband present.
In the city the population is spread out with 25.3% under the age of 19, 6.9% from 20 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 11.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36.7 years. For every 100 females there are 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.1 males.
The median income for a working individual in the city is $39,713, and the median income for a family is $73,507. Males have a median income of $47,203 versus $31,641 for females. The per capita income for the city is $23,061.
The dramatic rear view of Parliament Hill, with the Library of Parliament perched atop the deep gorge of the Ottawa River.
See List of Ottawa media outlets.
See also List of Ottawa schools
Item of interest
View of part of downtown Ottawa, with the National Gallery at left
The National Research Council of Canada's shortwave time signal station, CHU, is located in Ottawa.