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List of adjectival forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalent.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural form. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case or '-ese' endings, are the same as the plural form. The French plural ending of '-oise' drops the final 'e' in the singular.



(Currently extant nations)

Nation Adjective Demonym
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antigua Antiguan Antiguans
Argentina Argentinian or Argentine Argentinians or Argentines
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Australia Australian Australians
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Azerbaijanis
Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial) Barbadians or Bajans (colloquial)
Barbuda Barbudan Barbudans
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese or Beninois Beninese or Beninoise
Bermuda Bermudian Bermudians
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana (plural: Batswana) Motswana (plural: Batswana)
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islander British Virgin Islanders
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Faso(1) Burkinabe Burkinabe
Burundi Burundian Burundians
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians
Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
China Chinese Chinese
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Islander Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros Comoran Comorans
Congo (Kinshasha & Brazzaville) Congolese or Congo Congolese
Cook Islands Cook Islander Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans
Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians or Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Dominica Dominican Dominicans
Dominican Republic Dominican Dominicans
East Timor Timorese Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans
England English Englishman or Englishwoman ; English (collective)
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans or Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French Frenchman or Frenchwoman ; French (collective)
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesian
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese
Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians
Great Britain British Briton ; British (collective)
Greece Greek, Grecian (rare) Greeks, Grecians (archaic)
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guernsey Channel Islander Channel Islanders
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guinea-Bissau Guinean Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians
Honduras Honduran Hondurans
Hungary Hungarian Hungarians
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian Iranians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland Irish Irishman or Irishwoman ; Irish (collective)
Isle of Man Manx Manxman or Manxwoman
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian Italians
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati I-Kiribati I-Kiribati
Korea, North North Korean North Koreans
Korea, South South Korean South Koreans
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani Kyrgyzstanis
Laos Laotian or Lao Laotians or Laos
Latvia Latvian Latvians
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Mosotho (plural: Basotho)
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg Luxembourger
Macau Chinese Chinese
Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais Martiniquais
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monegasque or Monacan Monegasques or Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Myanmar (2) ??? ???
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nepal Nepalese Nepalese
Netherlands Dutch Dutchman or Dutchwoman ; Dutch (collective)
Netherlands Antilles Dutch Antillean Dutch Antilleans
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders or Kiwis (colloquial)
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Norway Norwegian Norwegian
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean or Papuan Papua New Guineans or Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines Philippine Filipinos or Filipinas
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islander Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans or Boricuas
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Réunion Réunionese Réunionese
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans
Saint Helena Saint Helenian Saint Helenians
Saint Kitts and Nevis Kittitian or Nevisian Kittitians or Nevisians
Saint Lucia Saint Lucian Saint Lucians
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais or Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais or Miquelonnais (singular same for each)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincentian or Vincentian Saint Vincentians or Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi or Saudi Arabian Saudis or Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scottish or Scots Scots, Scotsman or Scotswoman
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia and Montenegro Serbian or Montenegrin Serbs or Montenegrins
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singapore Singaporeans
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovenian Slovenes
Solomon Islands Solomon Islander Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali Somalis
South Africa South African South Africans
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Taiwan Taiwanese Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian or Tobagonian Trinidadians or Tobagonians
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands none none
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati Emiratis
United Kingdom British Briton ; British (collective)
United States American (3) Americans ; Yankees or Yanks (colloquial)
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani Uzbekistanis
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands Virgin Islander Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh Welshman or Welshwoman
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander Wallisians, Futunans, or Wallis and Futuna Islanders
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans


City Adjective Demonym
Aberdeen, Scotland Aberdonian ???
Athens Athenian Athenians
Baton Rouge, Louisiana Baton Rouge Baton Rougeans
Berlin Berlin Berliners
Birmingham, England Birminghamian Birminghamians or Brummies
Brisbane, Australia Brisbane Brisbanites
Bristol, England Bristolian ???
Cambridge, England Cantabrigian ???
Canberra, Australia Canberra Canberrans
Chicago ??? Chicagoans
Dallas ??? Dallasites
Denver ??? Denverites
Dublin ??? Dubliners, Dubs (colloquial)
Glasgow, Scotland Glaswegian ???
Halifax, Nova Scotia Haligonian ???
Jerusalem ??? Jerusalemites
Liverpool, England Liverpudlian Liverpudlians or Scousers
London London Londoners
Los Angeles Los Angeles Angelenos
Madrid Madrilene ???
Manchester, England Mancunian ???
Melbourne, Australia Melbourne Melburnians
Naples, Italy Neapolitan ???
New Orleans New Orleans New Orleaners ; Yats (colloquial)
Newcastle, England Novocastrian Novocastrians or Geordies
Okinawa, Japan Okinawan ???
Oxford, England Oxonian ???
Paris Parisian ???
Portland, Oregon Portlandian Portlanders
Rome Roman ???
Seattle Seattle Seattleites
Sydney, Australia Sydney Sydneysiders
Venice, Italy Venetian ???
Valencia, Spain Valencian ???
Victoria, Australia Victorian ???
Vienna Viennese ???

U.S. States

State Adjective Demonym
Alabama Alabamian Alabamians
Alaska Alaskan Alaskans
Arizona Arizonan Arizonans
Arkansas Arkansan Arkansans
California Californian Californians
Connecticut Connecticut Connecticuters or Nutmeggers
Florida Floridian Floridians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Hawaii Hawaiian Hawaiians
Indiana Indiana Hoosiers
Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisans
Iowa Iowan Iowans
Louisiana Louisiana Louisianans or Louisianians
Maine Maine Mainers or Down Easters
Michigan Michigan Michiganders or Michiganians
Minnesota Minnesotan Minnesotans
Nebraska Nebraskan Nebraskans
New Jersey New Jersey New Jerseyans or New Jerseyites
New York New York New Yorkers
Oklahoma Oklahoman Oklahomans
Oregon Oregonian Oregonians
Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennsylvanians
Texas Texan Texans
Utah Utahn Utahns
Vermont Vermont Vermonters
Virginia Virginian Virginians
Washington Washingtonian Washingtonians
West Virginia West Virginian West Virginians

Canadian Provinces

Province Adjective Demonym
Alberta Alberta Albertans
British Columbia British Columbia British Columbians
Manitoba Manitoba Manitobans
New Brunswick New Brunswick New Brunswickers
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia Nova Scotians
Ontario Ontario Ontarians
Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island or P.E.I. Islanders
Quebec English: Quebec, French: Québécoise (4) English: Quebecers, French: Québécoise
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Saskatchewanians

Australian States

State Adjective Demonym
New South Wales New South Welsh New South Welshman (-woman)
Northern Territory Northern Territory Territorians
Queensland Queensland Queenslanders
South Australia South Australian South Australians
Tasmania Tasmanian Tasmanians
Western Australia West Australian West Australians

Extinct Nations & Regions

Note: This chart includes: ancient civilisations, former colonies, dissolved countries, renamed countries, annexed countries and seccessionist states, among others.

Place name Adjective Demonym
Acadia Acadian Acadians
Argos Argive Argives
Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Austro-Hungarians, Austrians, or Hungarians
Babylon Babylonian Babylonians
Burma Burmese Burmese
Carthage Carthaginian Carthaginians
Chechnya Chechnyan, Chechan Chechnyan, Chechan
Confederate States of America Confederate, CSA Confederates, Condfederate Americans ; Rebels or Rebs (colloquial)
Corinth Corinthian Corinthians
Crete Cretan Cretans
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian Czechoslovakians
Locris Locrian Locrians
Manchuria Manchurian Manchurians
Megara Megarian Megarians
Moldovia Moldovian Moldovians
Olympia Olympic Olympians
Persia Persian Persians
Phocis Phocian Phocians
Phrygia Phrygian Phrygians
Rhodes Rhodian Rhodians
Siam Siamese Siamese
Soviet Union Soviet Soviets
Sparta Spartan Spartans
Thebes Theban Thebans
Thessaly Thessalian Thessalians
Tibet Tibetan Tibetans
Transylvania Transylvanian Transylvanians
Troy Trojan Trojans
Yugoslavia Yugoslavian Yugoslavs
Zaire Zairean Zaireans

Miscellaneous Regions

Place name Adjective Demonym
Acadiana Acadian Acadianans
Aleutian Islands Aleut or Aleutian Aleuts or Aleutians
Alsace Alsacian Alsacians
The Americas American Americans
Andalusia Andalusian Andalusians
Antarctic Antarctic ???
Aragon Aragonese Aragonese
Asturias Asturian Asturians
Bali Balinese Balinese
Baltic Baltic ???
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Basque Country Basque Basques
Bohemia Bohemian Bohemians
Brittany Breton Bretons
Cantabria Cantabrian Cantabrians
Caribbean Caribbean ???
Carinthia Carinthian Carinthians
Castile Castilian Castilians
Catalonia Catalan or Catalonian Catalans or Catalonians
Cornwall Cornish Cornish (collective)
Corsica Corsican Corsicans
Crimea Crimean Crimeans
Fife Fife Fifers
Flanders Flemish Flemish (collective)
Galicia Galician Galicians
Guiana Guianan Guianans
Harrow Harrovian ???
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kongers
Java Javanese Javanese
Kashmir Kashmiran Kashmiris
Korea Korean Koreans
Kosovo and Methohija Kosovar or Kosovan Kosovars or Kosovans
Kurdistan Kurdish Kurdistanis
Lancashire Lancastrian Lancastrians
Lapland Lapp or Saami Lapplanders or Saamis
Mediterranean Mediterranean ???
Melanesia Melanesian Melanesians
Murcia Murcian Murcians
Nassau Nassuvian Nassuvians
Nauru Naurian Naurians
Navarre Navarrese Navarrese
Newfoundland Newfoundland Newfoundlanders
Normandy Norman Normans
Northumberland Northumbrian Northumbrians
Nubia Nubian Nubians
Orkney Islands Orcadian Orcadians
Pacific Pacific ???
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Polynesia Polynesian Polynesians
Sardinia Sardinian Sardinians
Siberia Siberian Siberians
Sicily Sicilian Sicilians
Tahiti Tahitian Tahitians
Tuscany Tuscan Tuscans
Upper Peninsula of Michigan ??? Yoopers
Yorkshire Yorkshire Yorkshireman


Continent Adjective Demonym
Africa African Africans
Antarctica Antarctic Antarctics
Asia Asian Asians
Australia Australian Australians
Europe European Europeans
North America North American North Americans
South America South American South Americans


Planet Adjective Demonym
Earth Earth or World or Terran Earthlings or Terrans
Jupiter Jovian none
Mars Martian none
Mercury Mercurian none
Neptune Neptunian none
Pluto Plutonian none
Saturn Saturnian none
Uranus Uranian none
Venus Venusian none


See also

Last updated: 01-22-2005 01:26:23