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Antiquities of the Jews

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Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93.

The extant copies of this work, which all derive from Christian sources, even the recently-recovered Arabic version, contain two passages about Jesus. The long one has come to be known as the Testimonium Flavianum. If genuine, it is the earliest record of Jesus in Jewish sources, and as such is sometimes cited as independent evidence for the historical existence of Jesus.

One of the best known translations of this work was provided by William Whiston in 1737.



(The translations of the headings are Whiston's.)

Book I: Containing The Interval Of Three Thousand Eight Hundred And Thirty-Three Years. From The Creation To The Death Of Isaac.

  • Chapter 1: The Constitution Of The World And The Disposition Of The Elements.
  • Chapter 2: Concerning The Posterity Of Adam, And The Ten Generations From Him To The Deluge
  • Chapter 3: Concerning The Flood; And After What Manner Noah Was Saved In An Ark, With His Kindred, And Afterwards Dwelt In The Plain Of Shinar
  • Chapter 4: Concerning The Tower Of Babylon, And The Confusion Of Tongues
  • Chapter 5: After What Manner The Posterity Of Noah Sent Out Colonies, And Inhabited The Whole Earth
  • Chapter 6: How Every Nation Was Denominated From Their First Inhabitants
  • Chapter 7: How Abram Our Forefather Went Out Of The Land Of The Chaldeans, And Lived In The Land Then Called Canaan But Now Judea
  • Chapter 8: That When There Was A Famine In Canaan, Abram Went Thence Into Egypt; And After He Had Continued There A While He Returned Back Again
  • Chapter 9: The Destruction Of The Sodomites By The Assyrian Wall
  • Chapter 10: How Abram Fought With The Assyrians, And Overcame Them, And Saved The Sodomite Prisoners, And Took From The Assyrians The Prey They Had Gotten
  • Chapter 11: How God Overthrew The Nation Of The Sodomites, Out Of His Wrath Against Them For Their Sins
  • Chapter 12: Concerning Abimelech; And Concerning Ismael The Son Of Abraham; And Concerning The Arabians, Who Were His Posterity
  • Chapter 13: Concerning Isaac The Legitimate Son Of Abraham
  • Chapter 14: Concerning Sarah Abraham's Wife; And How She Ended Her Days
  • Chapter 15: How The Nation Of The Troglodytes Were Derived From Abraham By Keturah
  • Chapter 16: How Isaac Took Rebeka To Wife
  • Chapter 17: Concerning The Death Of Abraham
  • Chapter 18: Concerning The Sons Of Isaac, Esau And Jacob; Of Their Nativity And Education
  • Chapter 19: Concerning Jacob's Flight Into Mesopotamia, By Reason Of The Fear He Was In Of His Brother
  • Chapter 20: Concerning The Meeting Of Jacob And Esau
  • Chapter 21: Concerning The Violation Of Dina's Chastity
  • Chapter 22: How Isaac Died, And Was Buried In Hebron

Book II: Containing The Interval Of Two Hundred And Twenty Years. From The Death Of Isaac To The Exodus Out Of Egypt.

  • Chapter 1: How Esau And Jacob, Isaac's Sons Divided Their Habitation; And Esau Possessed Idumea And Jacob Canaan
  • Chapter 2: How Joseph, The Youngest Of Jacob's Sons, Was Envied By His Brethren, When Certain Dreams Had Foreshown His Future Happiness
  • Chapter 3: How Joseph Was Thus Sold By His Brethren Into Egypt, By Reason Of Their Hatred To Him; And How He There Grew Famous And Illustrious And Had His Brethren Under His Power
  • Chapter 4: Concerning The Signal Chastity Of Joseph
  • Chapter 5: What Things Befell Joseph In Prison
  • Chapter 6: How Joseph When He Was Become Famous In Egypt, Had His Brethren In Subjection
  • Chapter 7: The Removal Of Joseph's Father With All His Family, To Him, On Account Of The Famine
  • Chapter 8: Of The Death Of Jacob And Joseph
  • Chapter 9: Concerning The Afflictions That Befell The Hebrews In Egypt, During Four Hundred Years
  • Chapter 10: How Moses Made War With The Ethiopians
  • Chapter 11: How Moses Fled Out Of Egypt Into Midian
  • Chapter 12: Concerning The Burning Bush And The Rod Of Moses
  • Chapter 13: How Moses And Aaron Returned Into Egypt To Pharaoh
  • Chapter 14: Concerning The Ten Plagues Which Came Upon The Egyptians
  • Chapter 15: How The Hebrews Under The Conduct Of Moses Left Egypt
  • Chapter 16: How The Sea Was Divided Asunder For The Hebrews, When They Were Pursued By The Egyptians, And So Gave Them An Opportunity Of Escaping From Them

Book III: Containing The Interval Of Two Years. From The Exodus Out Of Egypt, To The Rejection Of That Generation.

  • Chapter 1: How Moses When He Had Brought The People Out Of Egypt Led Them To Mount Sinai; But Not Till They Had Suffered Much In Their Journey
  • Chapter 2: How The Amalekites And The Neighbouring Nations, Made War With The Hebrews And Were Beaten And Lost A Great Part Of Their Army
  • Chapter 3: That Moses Kindly Received-His Father-In-Law, Jethro, When He Came To Him To Mount Sinai
  • Chapter 4: How Raguel Suggested To Moses To Set His People In Order, Under Their Rulers Of Thousands, And Rulers Of Hundreds, Who Lived Without Order Before; And How Moses Complied In All Things With His Father-In-Law's Admonition
  • Chapter 5: How Moses Ascended Up To Mount Sinai, And Received Laws From God, And Delivered Them To The Hebrews
  • Chapter 6: Concerning The Tabernacle Which Moses Built In The Wilderness For The Honor Of God And Which Seemed To Be A Temple
  • Chapter 7: Concerning The Garments Of The Priests, And Of The High Priest
  • Chapter 8: Of The Priesthood Of Aaron
  • Chapter 9: The Manner Of Our Offering Sacrifices
  • Chapter 10: Concerning The Festivals; And How Each Day Of Such Festival Is To Be Observed
  • Chapter 11: Of The Purifications
  • Chapter 12: Several Laws
  • Chapter 13: Moses Removed From Mount Sinai, And Conducted The People To The Borders Of The Canaanites
  • Chapter 14: How Moses Sent Some Persons To Search Out The Land Of The Canaanites, And The Largeness Of Their Cities; And Further That When Those Who Were Sent Were Returned, After Forty Days And Reported That They Should Not Be A Match For Them, And Extolled The Strength Of The Canaanites The Multitude Were Disturbed And Fell Into Despair; And Were Resolved To Stone Moses, And To Return Back Again Into Egypt, And Serve The Egyptians
  • Chapter 15: How Moses Was Displeased At This, And Foretold That God Was Angry And That They Should Continue In The Wilderness For Forty Years And Not, During That Time, Either Return Into Egypt Or Take Possession Of Canaan

Book IV: Containing The Interval Of Thirty-Eight Years. From The Rejection Of That Generation To The Death Of Moses

  • Chapter 1: Fight Of The Hebrews With The Canaanites Without The Consent Of Moses; And Their Defeat
  • Chapter 2: The Sedition Of Corah And Of The Multitude Against Moses, And Against His Brother, Concerning The Priesthood
  • Chapter 3: How Those That Stirred Up This Sedition Were Destroyed, According To The Will Of God; And How Aaron, Moses's Brother Both He And His Posterity, Retained The Priesthood
  • Chapter 4: What Happened To The Hebrews During Thirty-Eight Years In The Wilderness
  • Chapter 5: How Moses Conquered Sihon And Og Kings Of The Amorites, And Destroyed Their Whole Army And Then Divided Their Land By Lot To Two Tribes And A Half Of The Hebrews
  • Chapter 6: Concerning Balaam The Prophet And What Kind Of Man He Was
  • Chapter 7: How The Hebrews Fought With The Midianites, And Overcame Them
  • Chapter 8: The Polity Settled By Moses; And How He Disappeared From Among Mankind

Book V: Containing The Interval Of Four Hundred And Seventy-Six Years. From The Death Of Moses To The Death Of Eli.

  • Chapter 1: How Joshua, The Commander Of The Hebrews, Made War With The Canaanites, And Overcame Them, And Destroyed Them, And Divided Their Land By Lot To The Tribes Of Israel
  • Chapter 2: How, After The Death Of Joshua Their Commander, The Israelites Transgressed The Laws Of Their Country, And Experienced Great Afflictions; And When There Was A Sedition Arisen, The Tribe Of Benjamin Was Destroyed Excepting Only Six Hundred Men
  • Chapter 3: How The Israelites After This Misfortune Grew Wicked And Served The Assyrians; And How God Delivered Them By Othniel, Who Ruled Over The Forty Years
  • Chapter 4: How Our People Served The Moabites Eighteen Years, And Were Then Delivered From Slavery By One Ehud Who Retained The Dominion Eighty Years
  • Chapter 5: How The Canaanites Brought The Israelites Under Slavery For Twenty Years; After Which They Were Delivered By Barak And Deborah, Who Ruled Over Them For Forty Years
  • Chapter 6: How The Midianites And Other Nations Fought Against The Israelites And Beat Them, And Afflicted Their Country For Seven Years, How They Were Delivered By Gideon, Who Ruled Over The Multitude For Forty Years
  • Chapter 7: That The Judges Who Succeeded Gideon Made War With The Adjoining Nations For A Long Time
  • Chapter 8: Concerning The Fortitude Of Samson, And What Mischiefs He Brought Upon The Philistines
  • Chapter 9: How Under Eli's Government Of The Israelites Booz Married Ruth, From Whom Came Obed The Grandfather Of David
  • Chapter 10: Concerning The Birth Of Samuel; And How He Foretold The Calamity That Befell The Sons Of Eli
  • Chapter 11: Herein Is Declared What Befell The Sons Of Eli, The Ark, And The People And How Eli Himself Died Miserably

Book VI: Containing The Interval Of Thirty-Two Years. From The Death Of Eli To The Death Of Saul.

  • Chapter 1: The Destruction That Came Upon The Philistines, And Upon Their Land, By The Wrath Of Go On Account Of Their Having Carried The Ark Away Captive; And After What Manner They Sent It Back To The Hebrews
  • Chapter 2: The Expedition Of The Philistines Against The Hebrews And The Hebrews' Victory Under The Conduct Of Samuel The Prophet, Who Was Their General
  • Chapter 3: How Samuel When He Was So Infirm With Old Age That He Could Not Take Care Of The Public Affairs Intrusted Them To His Sons; And How Upon The Evil Administration Of The Government By Them The Multitude Were So Angry, That They Required To Have A King To Govern Them, Although Samuel Was Much Displeased Thereat
  • Chapter 4: The Appointment Of A King Over The Israelites, Whose Name Was Saul; And This By The Command Of God
  • Chapter 5: Saul's Expedition Against The Nation Of The Ammonites And Victory Over Them And The Spoils He Took From Them
  • Chapter 6: How The Philistines Made Another Expedition Against The Hebrews And Were Beaten
  • Chapter 7: Saul's War With The Amalekites, And Conquest Of Them
  • Chapter 8: How, Upon Saul's Transgression Of The Prophet's Commands, Samuel Ordained Another Person To Be King Privately, Whose Name Was David, As God Commanded Him
  • Chapter 9: How The Philistines Made Another Expedition Against The Hebrews Under The Reign Of Saul; And How They Were Overcome By David's Slaying Goliath In Single Combat
  • Chapter 10: Saul Envies David For His Glorious Success, And Takes An Occasion Of Entrapping Him, From The Promise He Made Him Of Giving Him His Daughter In Marriage; But This Upon Condition Of His Bringing Him Six Hundred Heads Of The Philistines
  • Chapter 11: How David, Upon Saul's Laying Snares For Him, Did Yet Escape The Dangers He Was In By The Affection And Care Of Jonathan And The Contrivances Of His Wife Michal: And How He Came To Samuel The Prophet
  • Chapter 12: How David fled to Ahimelech and afterwards to the kings of the Philistines and of the Moabites, and how Saul slew Ahimelech and his family
  • Chapter 13: How David, when he had twice the opportunity of killing Saul did not kill him. Also concerning the death of Samuel and Nabal.
  • Chapter 14: Concerning the fight with the Philistines desired a necromantic woman to raise up the soul of Samuel to kill; and how he died with his sons upon overthrow of the Hebrews in battle

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Last updated: 05-13-2005 07:56:04