Intermediate technology is infrastructural capital that is at least an order of magnitude more expensive than that prevalent in a developing nation but also at least an order of magnitude less expensive than that prevalent in a developed nation offering aid. For instance, if a typical workplace costs $1 to equip with primitive tools, but a competitive modern industrial approach would require a workplace costing $1000, then the 'intermediate technologies' are those that cost $10-$100 per workplace. The term was popularized by E. F. Schumacher and his colleagues working on early human development theory in the 1960s. It was explained in depth in his book "Small is Beautiful ", which offered a sharp critique of then-prevalent approaches to development aid.
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