A Commonwealth realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom as their Queen and head of state. In each state she acts as the monarch of that state and is titled accordingly. For example, in Australia she is known as "Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia" or simply, the Queen of Australia. (See List of Royal Titles of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom)
Upon the "advice" of the nations' prime ministers, the Queen appoints a Governor-General to represent her as the de facto Head of State "during her absence". The Governor-General in turn exercises the powers of a constitutional monarch with a few symbolic, figurehead duties.
In countries with federal systems like Canada and Australia, the Queen is also represented by a Governor in each of the states of Australia and by a Lieutenant Governor in each of the provinces of Canada.
Fourteen of the realms are former British self-governing colonies (including the Dominions) that became independent countries either after the ratification of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the collapse of the Federation of the West Indies in 1961, or at later dates, the latest being Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1983. The two exceptions are Papua New Guinea which was administered by Australia as an international trusteeship before independence in 1975 and the United Kingdom itself.
Countries currently Commonwealth Realms
The Commonwealth Realms are a part of, but should be distinguished from, the Commonwealth of Nations which is an organization of mostly former British colonies, the majority of whom do not recognize the Queen as head of state.
Commonwealth Realms are:
- Antigua and Barbuda,
- The Bahamas,
- New Zealand,
- Papua New Guinea,
- Saint Kitts and Nevis,
- Saint Lucia,
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
- The Solomon Islands,
The United Kingdom is also considered a Commonwealth realm.
Flags of the Queen in Commonwealth Realms
In her capacity as Queen of different Commonwealth Realms, Her Majesty does not use the British Royal Standard, but instead uses either her flag for that realm, or her personal flag as Head of the Commonwealth, which is also used when visiting Commonwealth countries where she is not recognised as Head of State.
Queen of Malta's Flag 1967
The Queen has flags for Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica and Barbados. Each is a banner of the country's coat of arms, with the royal cypher in the centre, with the letter 'E' for 'Elizabeth'. The Queen formerly had flags for Sierra Leone, Malta, and Trinidad and Tobago, but when these countries became republics, they became obsolete.
Flags of Governors-General
Governor-General of Malta's
Similarly, the Governor-General has his or her own flag featuring the Royal Lion and Crown (The Saint Edward's Crown), with the name of the country written in capitals on a scroll underneath. The Governor General of Canada has a distinctive design, which features the Royal Lion with the Saint Edward's Crown, bearing a maple leaf.
Countries formerly Commonwealth Realms
Following their independence from Britain, most Commonwealth countries retained the Queen as head of state, but eventually changed the title of the monarch to the Sovereign of their own respective nations (ie: "Queen of Barbados", rather than "Queen of the United Kingdom"). South Africa and Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka) were the first to do this.
With time, some Commonwealth Realms moved to become republics, passing constitutional amendments removing the monarch as their head of state, and replacing the Governor-General with an elected or appointed president. This was especially true in post-colonial Africa, whose leaders often did not want to "share" the office of Head of State with the Queen. They remained within the Commonwealth, following the precedent set by India in 1950, recognising the British monarch as 'Head of the Commonwealth', but not as head of state. Previously, republican status was incompatible with Commonwealth membership, prompting Ireland to withdraw from the association on becoming a republic in 1949.
In some former Commonwealth realms, including Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, and Mauritius, the new office of President became a ceremonial post, but other countries, such as Ghana, Malawi and Gambia, the President became an executive post, held by the last Prime Minister. In the latter cases not only was the monarchy abolished, but the entire Westminster system of parliamentary government as well.
In Fiji, the change to a republic in 1987 came as a result of a military coup, rather than out of any republican sentiment, as Fiji's indigenous chiefs had voluntarily ceded their country to the Crown. Even when Fiji was not a member of the Commonwealth, symbols of the monarchy remained, including the Queen's portrait on banknotes and coins, and, unlike in the United Kingdom, the Queen's Official Birthday is a public holiday. When Fiji was readmitted to the Commonwealth, the issue of reinstating the Queen as Head of State, was raised, but not pursued, although the country's Council of Chiefs reaffirmed that the Queen was still the country's 'paramount chief'.
- Fiji 1 - 1987 (military coup)
- Gambia 2 - 1970 (new constitution)
- Ghana 2 - 1960
- Guyana 3 - 1970 (constitutional amendment)
- India 1 - 1950 (constitutional amendment)
- Ireland 4 - 1937 (new constitution)
- Kenya 2 - 1964 (new constitution)
- Malawi 2 - 1966 (new constitution)
- Malta 1 - 1974
- Mauritius 1 - 1992
- Nigeria 3 - 1963 (constitutional amendment)
- Tanganyika now Tanzania 2 - 1962
- Pakistan 3 - 1956 (military coup)
- Sierra Leone 2 - 1971
- South Africa 3 - 1961 (referendum)
- Sri Lanka 3 - 1972
- Trinidad and Tobago 1 - 1976
- Uganda - 3 1963 (constitutional amendment)
1. Presidency is ceremonial post.
2. Presidency is executive post.
3. Presidency originally ceremonial, now executive.
4. Presidency replaced office of Governor-General, but Republic not declared until 1949.
Rise of Republicanism
In recent years, there has been some debate within the remaining Commonwealth Realms about the continuing practice of sharing a monarch with the United Kingdom. While many seem to view the Queen's current role as Head of State with passive indifference, others view the Queen as an obstacle to true "independence" from the United Kingdom.
Contemporary Commonwealth realm republican sentiment tends to be quite different in nature from the sentiment which ended the realm status with the above nations. In the former cases, almost all the countries became republics very quickly following their independence, being monarchies by "default" as a result of British colonial pratice. These nations almost all felt very eager to cut all remaining ties with Britain in order to seem completely sovereign and free of outside influences, however superficial. The remaining realms, however, have shared a monarch with the United Kingdom for much longer, in some cases over a hundred years. The republican debate in such countries is thus more complicated, both in terms of the political and cultural ramifications that a change to a long-standing monarchist status quo could bring.
In Australia, Labor Prime Minister Paul Keating made clear his intention to make the country a republic by 2001. Following the holding of a Constitutional Convention in 1998, a referendum was held in 1999 on replacing the Queen as head of state with a President indirectly elected by Parliament. This was rejected because of divisions over how the future President should be elected, with some advocating direct election. It is likely that there will be another referendum on the issue in the future.
In neighbouring New Zealand, Prime Minister Helen Clark and her predecessor James Bolger have also voiced their support for republicanism, and a republican movement has been established. There have also been doubts expressed about the future role of the monarchy in Canada with some members of the governing Liberal Party showing support for a republic, but there has been little sign of change in the immediate future.
Those advocating change have pointed out that the majority of Commonwealth countries have long since become republics, and that were their countries to do the same, they could still be part of the Commonwealth.
Most republicans in the remaining Commonwealth realms, advocate parliamentary republics, in which the Queen and Governor-General would be replaced by a President, as is the case in India. There has been little support in these countries for a presidential republic, similar to the United States or France. However, in Australia in 1999, there was disagreement over whether the President of Australia should be elected by parliament (as in India) or directly, as in the Republic of Ireland.
While the Queen's powers in Commonwealth Realms are limited to appointing the Governor-General (and even this is done on the "advice" of the prime minister), her name and image continue to play a prominent role in political institutions and symbols. For example, the Queen's image usually appears on coins and banknotes, and an oath of allegiance to her is usually required from politicians, judges, and new citizens. Opponents argue that these symbolic gestures make an independent nation look "subsidiary" to the United Kingdom, and are confusing and anachronistic. Proponents argue that their respective realm is already an independent nation, and that the monarchy with its history and traditions are the basis for their national identity. Critics of the monarchy also argue that as the Queen is Supreme Governor of the Church of England having her as head of state counters principles of non-sectarianism by promoting one religion as a de facto state religion even in realms that do not have an official state church.
Historically, Commonwealth Realm proponents of the monarchy were generally supportive of the monarchy as a symbolic link to the United Kingdom. During the late 19th and early 20th Century most politicians in the the self-governing realms, (then called Dominions) tended to view British culture and attitudes as favorable, and encouraged their prominance in the newly developing societies. Maintaining allegiance to the British King or Queen was thus seen as a natural thing for many residents, who did not yet regard their citizenship as being anything less than British subjects. Self-goverance increased in the 1930's and 40's, and by the 1980s most realms had ceased to maintain any form of consitutitional ties to the United Kingdom. This thus marked the end of the so-called colonial mentality, and in doing so threw the future of the monarchy into question. Proponents of the monarchy then began to downplay the "British" aspect of the monarchy, and began to focus on the Queen's role as Head of State over an independent Commonwealth Realm. Today the Queen is described within realms as being the Queen of that realm (i.e. The Queen of Australia, The Queen of Canada etc...) with references to the Crown meaning the Crown of that country, not the British one. There has thus been a fundamental shift between the "family" aspect of the Empire days, in which all dominons rallied around a common monarch, and today, in which each Commonwealth realm is encouraged to think of the Queen as "their own," and serving a role independent of any other obligations in other countries.
Commonwealth realm supporters of the monarchy often argue that creating a republican head of state would ultimately cost more, not less, than the current monarchy. They point to the presidencies of the United States and France which cost more to maintain than their monarchies. They cite the additional costs involving in updating the governor-general's residences to full head of state presidential palace level, the costs of state visit, political advisors, increased ceremonial functions, etc, functions that in many cases do not exist for a governor-general, given that they are not a full head of state, but which would be required for a president.
Establishing republicanism in the remaining realms is often hampered in large part because of previous long disputes over constitutional issues and reforms (especially in Canada and Australia) and thus a reluctance to enter into the extensive constitutional renegotiation that would be required to establish a new political system.
- Australian Monarchist Legaue
- Australian Republican Movement
- No Republic - Australians for Constitutional Monarchy
- Canadian Monarchy - The Official Site
- Canadian Monarchist ONLINE
- Citizens for a Canadian Republic
- Monarchist League of Canada