The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary






Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus is an organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells, which contains most of the cell's genetic material. Nuclei have two primary functions: to control chemical reactions within the cytoplasm and to store information needed for cellular division


The nucleus, being the largest organelle, varies in diameter from 10 to 20 micrometres. It is enclosed by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The inner and outer membrane fuse at regular intervals, forming nuclear pores. The nuclear envelope regulates and facilitates transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, while separating the chemical reactions taking place in cytoplasm from reactions happening within the nucleus. The outer membrane is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and may be studded with ribosomes. The space between the two membranes (called the "perinuclear space") is continuous with the lumen of the RER.

Inside the nucleus is one or several nucleoli surrounded by a fibrous matrix called the nucleoplasm. The nucleoplasm is a liquid with a gel-like consistency (similar in this respect to the cytoplasm), in which many substances are dissolved. These substances include nucleotide triphospates, enzymes, proteins, and transcription factors. Genetic material (DNA) is also present in the nucleus, and is in a loosely coiled form called chromatin (as opposed to its highly coiled and compacted form, the chromosome).

There are two types of chromatin: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Euchromatin is the least compact form of DNA, and the regions of DNA which constitute euchromatin contain genes which are frequently expressed by the cell.

In heterochromatin, DNA is more tightly compacted. Regions of DNA which constitute heterochromatin generally contain genes which are not expressed by the cell (this type of heterochromatin is known as facultative heterochromatin) or are regions which make up the telomeres and centromeres of the chromosomes (this type of heterochromatin is known as constitutive heterochromatin). In multicellular organisms, cells are highly specialised to perform particular functions, hence different sets of genes are required and expressed. Therefore, the regions of DNA that constitute heterochromatin vary between cell types.

Nucleoli are densely-stained structures at which ribosome subunits are assembled.

Organelles of the cell
Chloroplast | Mitochondrion | Centriole | Endoplasmic reticulum | Golgi apparatus | Lysosome | Myofibril | Nucleus | Peroxisome | Ribosome | Vacuole | Vesicle

Last updated: 02-08-2005 16:27:05
Last updated: 04-29-2005 16:29:08