Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. In the case of non-human animals, this is also called spaying. It is a form of sterilization.
The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.
In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.
In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.
Oophorectomy is sometimes referred to as castration, but that term is most often used to mean the removal of a male animal's testicles.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank founded in 1943 whose stated mission is to support the "foundations of freedom - limited government, private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and a strong foreign policy and national defense." It has emerged as one of the leading architects of the Bush administration's public policy. It is often seen as a conservative counterpart to the Brookings Institution.
- Richard Cohen penned a vociferous response to Congressman Dennis Kucinich's assertion that the war is about oil. He penned a lengthy op-ed piece in the Washington Post explaining the neoconservative idea of World War IV.
- Richard Perle serves on the United States Defense Policy Board and the former deputy Secretary of Defense.
- Michael Fumento works at AEI.
- Newt Gingrich, member of the Republican Party and Speaker of the United States House of Representatives between 1995 and 1999, is a senior fellow at AEI focusing on health care (he has founded the Center for Health Transformation ), information technology, the military, and politics.
- Lee Raymond, CEO of ExxonMobil, is the vice chair of AEI's board of trustees.
- CNN Political Affairs reporter Bill Schneider works at the AEI.
- Michael Ledeen was previously involved in the transfer of arms to Iran during the Iran-Contra affair -- an adventure that he documented in his book, Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra Affair.
- Michael Novak is the George Frederick Jewett Scholar in Religion, Philosophy and Public Policy and Director of Social and Political Studies at the institute. He has written extensively about the role of faith in government.
- Lynne Cheney, the wife of U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, and an AEI senior fellow.
- John Lott, Jr. is an opponent of gun control and the author of a book titled "More Guns, Less Crime."
- Christina Hoff Sommers is a critic of the feminist movement. She is the author of Who Stole Feminism and The War Against Boys .
- Fred Thompson, the current D.A. on Law & Order and former U.S. Senator from Tennessee, researches "National Security & Intelligence (China, North Korea, and Russia)" for the AEI.
AEI has received more than $30 million in funding from sources including the following:
- The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation, Inc.
- Castle Rock Foundation
- Earhart Foundation
- JM Foundation
- Philip M. McKenna Foundation, Inc.
- John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.
- Sarah Scaife Foundation
- Scaife Family Foundation
- Smith Richardson Foundation
American Enterprise Institute
1150 Seventeenth Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
E-mail: [email protected]
- The American Enterprise Institute (AEI) official website http://www.aei.org
- The American Enterprise print magazine http://www.taemag.com
- Media Transparency: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research http://www.mediatransparency.org/search_results/info_on_any_recipient.php?recipi
Last updated: 02-07-2005 21:15:36