The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.
In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.
In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.
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Members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association (not to be confused with the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam), refer to themselves as Ahmadi Muslims. This Islamic sect created in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, who claimed to be the Messiah and Mahdi prophesied in the Qur'an, the Hadith, Bible, and and fulfillment of similar prophesies in the books of other major and minor religions. The movement has met with great resistance among Sunnis as it differs from their common belief that Muhammad was the 'last' or 'seal' of prophets of God. Ahmadis argue that Muhammad, whom all Muslims believe to be the greatest of all Prophets, was the last law-bearing prophet and that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad did not create a new religion, but revived and rejuvenated the teachings of Islam. Ahmadis divide prophets between law-bearing and subservient prophets. The latter follow the given law of the law-bearing prophet, and act as a restorative prophet. In the same way that Jesus and Solomon were (subservient prophets) and the successors of Moses (the law giver). Prophets
3.1 Al-Haaj Hakeem Maulana Nooruddin (1841-1914)
Ahmadis teach that:
Other beliefs include: Accountability, Afterlife, Angels, Conscience, Creation, Destiny, Doomsday, Evolution, God, Happiness, Heaven, Judgment Day, Knowledge, Life, Miracles, Prophecy, Punishment, Resurrection, Spirituality, Suffering, Truth. See 
Figures for the total numbers of adherents vary greatly between different sources. The groups own figures range from around 10 million (In 1980), to over 200 million (in 2003) members, in over 176 countries. This would represent 10% of all Muslims.
The Head Quarters was originally in Qadian in Punjab,India; then in 1947 it was moved to Rabwah, Punjab, Pakistan. Initially it was secure in Pakistan, but in the time of President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a law was passed stating that Ahmadis were a non-Muslim sect, and this was followed by waves persecution. During the dictatorship of General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq, the situation deteriorated, and following the general's death, the operation of the Community was so inhibited that it moved to its present location to Wandsworth, London, England.
On January 9, 2004, Bangladesh banned books published by Ahmadis. According to the consensus of objecting Islamic scholars, Ahmadis are considered 'kafirs' because they seem to contradict some of the basic Islamic tenets of faith. Ahmadis who are pacifists believe this is a confirmation of the truth of their faith.
Khalifatul Masih I (1908-1914) Hazrat Maulana Hakim Nooruddin Sahib (Khalifatul Masih I). He was born in the village of Bhera in Punjab in 1841. He was Royal Physician to the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir for many years and he travelled far and wide including a four year stay in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina in pursuit of knowledge. He was the first person who swear a pledge of allegiance (Baiat) to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Promised Messiah on 23rd March, 1889. In Qadian, his only lifes pursuit was religious and a concern to ameliorate the conditions of the poor. He exercised modesty, kindliness, patience and self denial which earned him the affection of all around him. He never ventured out of Qadian or wrote anything without the approval of his Imam Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. After Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's demise, Maulana Hakeem Nooruddin (ra) was unanimously acclaimed as his successor on 27th May 1908. He guided the community in this capacity till his death on Friday March 13, 1914. His achievements were; He laid the foundation for the institution of Khilafat. He successfully thwarted the designs those wishing to re-setablish the institution of Khalifat. English oversaw the translation of the Holy Quran. First foreign mission was established in London. Extensions were carried out to Aqsa Mosque and Talimul Islam High School and Boarding house buildings. Noor Hospital and Noor Mosque were inaugurated. A number of publications were started to broaden the propagation activities of the Ahmadiyya Movement; including, the "Al Fazal", and "Noor" from Qadian, "Al Haque" from Delhi and "Paigham-e-Sulha" from Lahore.
In 1914 a split took place in the Ahmadiyya Community with the accession of Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad, the 2nd Khalifatul Masih; over definitions of doctrines forming the mainstream Ahmadiyya Movement and Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha'at Islam. They are respectively known as Qadiani and Lahori sects.
Khalifatul Masih II styled "Musleh Maoud" (1914-1965)
The Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had prophesised advent of a spiritual and pious Promised son of the Mahdi at a time when Islam would be at a stage of decline and depression. He had prophesied he would come with a mission to revive and strengthen the Islamic theology and, through him, Islam, would resurge on the surface of the Earth. The Holy Prophet called this Holy Spiritual son as the Musleh (Reformer), and the Promised one, and said about him:
Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad's birth in 1889 was associated with the revelation of the Promised Messiah, the advent of the Promised son. He offered himself to the Community and soon formed an organisation called Anjuman Tashheezul Azhaan and started a magazine by the same name for prosletising.
On 26th May 1908, the Promised Messiah (peace be on him) passed away at Lahore when he was 19. At that moment this promised son stood by the bed of the Promised Messiah and vowed: "Even if all the people leave you and I am left alone I would stand by you and would face all opposition to and onslaughts on your Mission." On 27th May, 1908, the Promised Messiah (peace be upon him), he was the first to take the oath of allegiance first Khalifa.
In September 1912, he travelled to Egypt, then on to Mecca to performed the Hajj and whilst travelling he preached his fathers new doctrine Ahmadiyyat. In June 1913, he started, a newspaper "The Al Fazl" which became the central organ of the Community. On 14th of March, 1914, in Qadian, the "will" of Khalifatul Masih I was read out, requested the people to act accordingly and elect someone as his successor.
He was elected the Second Successor to the Promised Messiah on 14th March 1914 and remained Khalifa until 7th of November, 1965, a period of about fifty two (52) years. His achievements involved developing the scope of missionary activities and established Madrasa Ahmadiyya [Seminary] up to University status to provide learned religious missionaries. As part of this he established 46 Missions abroad from the remote town of Qadian. With his knowledge of the Quran and Hadith he navigated his way through swathes of opposition from Muslim and Christian Clerics raising the importance of the movement worldwide. In a public gathering in Delhi in 1944, he claiming himself to be the "Musleh Maoud" (Promised Reformer) and reiterating his challenge about the interpretation of the truths and wisdom of the Holy Quran. He also managed the Translation and Publication of the Holy Quran into Various Languages.
He also inspired and established the present configuration of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, establishing;
Migration of Ahmadis from India At independence in 1947, the country was divided, along religious lines with Muslims in India migrating to Pakistan. The Community found a tract of waste land and built out of the dust the town Rabwah which became the new headquarters to the astonishment of the local shia population. In it they built offices, schools, colleges and various community departments.
After an attempt on his life with a knife during leading prayers he made journey in the first week of April 1955 to London for medical treatment, despite this illness he opened various new missions in Europe. He died in Rabwah in 1955 after 52 years as Khilafa.
Khalifatul Masih III (1965-1982) Mirza Nasir Ahmad was born on 16th November, 1909 son of Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad, the second Caliph or Khalifa.
Hazrat Hafiz Mirza Nasir Ahmad succeeded as the third Caliph in 1965. Since then he expanded the Missionary activities of this Community against great and some times violent opposition. His achievement was the leadership he gave the Community when Pakistan declared the Ahmadiyya Community a Non-Muslim minority and did not suffer disintegration.
Under Mirza Nasir Ahmad the Ahmadiyya Community progressed in the propagation of Islam throughout the world, building and running schools, colleges, hospitals, preaching centres, mosques, especially West Africa. It also translated and published of Holy Quran in many languages. The Ahmadiyya Community made tremendous in roads against the expanding Christian Missionary movements from the coast of West Africa.
In 1976 he toured America, Canada, Norway, West Germany, Holland, Sweden and England in and again he visited in 1982 Switzerland, Holland, Spain, Sweden, Denmark and West Germany, and attended the London Conference in 1978 about the false belief in the Cruxifiction of Jesus on the Cross. After more than sixteen years as Khilafa he died on 9th of June, 1982.
Khalifatul Masih IV (1982-2003) He was born on 18th December, 1928 another son of Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad, the second Caliph. He graduated, with a degree from Jamia Ahmadiyya (Theological Academy) at Rabwah, then he studied in London for two and half years. After completing his higher education, he dedicated his life to the service of faith. Hazrat Hafiz Mirza Nasir, Khalifatul Masih III passed away on the 9th of June, 1982 and the following day Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad Sahib was elected as Khalifatul Masih IV.
He exhorted the Ahmadi women to observe "Purdah" strictly and to safeguard the Islamic Value of pious devotion over worldlyness. As a consequence of this guidance, most of the Ahmadi ladies in western countries now meticulously observe Purdah. He made preaching of Islam obligatory for every Muslim and set goals which doubled the new converts year upon year. He built up the organisation and its finances and actively visited innunerable countries all over the world. He exhorted the Ahmadis to completely root out this behaviour from their daily lives and foster graciousness between kindred and in-laws. In response many families have forsworn their past attitude.
The Persecution In 1984 the government of Pakistan under Zia-ul-Haq passed Ordinance XX banning the preaching of their faith by Ahmadis. This ordinance also banned the Ahmadis from calling themselves Muslim. According to this ordinance any Ahmadi who by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representation, directly or indirectly refers to himself as Muslim or calls for prayers as other Muslims do is punishable by imprisonment of upto 3 years. Thus a campaign of terror and repression was instigated against the followers of Mirza Tahir Ahmad reminiscent of the early Muslims in Mecca. Due to this ordinance Mirza Tahir Ahmad could no longer work in the capacity of the Caliph and was forced to perform Hijra to London in the same year.
Mirza Tahir Ahmad on 10th June, 1988, challenged some of the Sunni scholars to a Mubahila . After this challenge one of the first signs of God was the dramatic reappearance of Maulana Aslam Qureshi. Mirza Tahir Ahmad was falsely alleged to have kidnapped and murdered him. After reappearance Maulana Aslam Qureshi admitted in an interview on Pakistan Telivision that he had gone to Iran on his own will and no one had abducted him. This was news wasreported in most newspapers in Pakistan. The Daily Muslim Pakistan newspaper on 13th July, 1988 states:
"Lahore, July 12: Maulana Muhammad Aslam Qureshi of the Tehrik Khatme Nabuwwat, who was alleged to have been kidnapped and murdered by a minority of Pakistan over five years ago was produced on Tuesday before newsmen at a hurriedly called press conference addressed by Inspector General Police Punjab, Nisar Ahmad Cheema. Maulana Qureshi told newsmen that he served the Iranian Army for about five years and fought at various fronts during this period. He said that he had left his hometown Sialkot due to frustration caused by financial and other domestic problems." (Daily Muslim, 13th July, 1988)
General Zia-ul-Haq, who vowed that he would eradicate Ahmadiyyat from face of the Earth, was the most prominent person addressed in this Mubahila challenge. In order to do so committed atrocities against this peaceful community. Repeated warnings were given by the Head of the Ahmadiyya Community to General Zia that he had been named in this Mubahala and whether or not he formally accepted the challenge, he was a party to it, unless he stops the persecutions against the members of the Ahmadiyya Community. But the General did not desist from perpetuating the course of persecution. In his Friday Sermon of 12th August 1988 the Head of the Ahmadiyya Movement Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad stated that because General Zia-ul-Haq and his government had not relented in their wave of persecution, and has transgressed to the extreme his fate was now sealed.
On 17th August just 9 weeks after the challenge of Mubahila General Zia's military plane exploded in mid air and according to a newspaper's headlines, "ZIA BLOWN OUT OF SKY".
The Great Expansion Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IV has vastly expanded this programme of preaching and propagation and made preaching of Islam is obligatory for every Muslim. On the whole, the implementation of the programme in as many as 152 countries of the world. In the era of the 4th Caliph, the Jamaat has come to exercise considerable influence winning more and more adherents, among them eminent personalities and tribal kings. During the time of the 2nd and 3rd Caliphs, translation of the Qur'an was done in different languages. This work has been considerably accelerated under the 4th Khalifa. Translations in fifty one languages of the world have been completed and published. Translation of 300 selected verses of the Quran in 118 languages of the world have been done. This monumental achievement has no parallel in the last 1400 years. The number of new converts doubled each year reaching over 200 million by the end of his Khalifat. He established the first Muslim Satellite TV station and many 1000's parents dedicated their infants to serve the Ahmadiyya Community. He spoke and wrote extensively on a wide range of spiritual and secular subjects. In one of his many books, Murder in the Name of Allah , he forcefully argued from the Holy Quran and early Muslim history that Islam unequivocally rejects and reprobates coercion and compulsion in the matter of faith. In his recent book, Revelation, Rationality, Knowledge, and Truth he sought to establish the truth of the Holy Quran in the light of modern physical and biological sciences. He toured as Khalifa, Australiasia, Europe, America, south and south east Asia, and Africa opening the first ever Mosque to be built in Spain in 750 years. An internationally acclaimed thinker and scholar of comparative religions, he had a profound understanding of the Holy Quran, the Bible, and other scriptures. A discerning student of world history and a keen observer of the international political scene, he urged peace and tolerance among all nations and all peoples. He cared deeply about global human rights, championed the cause of the persecuted and the dispossessed, and advocated Islam as the solution of all contemporary political, social, economic, and spiritual problems.
Hadhrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad passed away on April 19, 2003 after a brief illness.
Biography Mubahala Ordinance XX
Khalifatul Masih V (2003- date)
Sahibzada [Mirza Masroor Ahmad] was born on 15th September 1950 in Rabwah, Pakistan, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community's then headquarter. He is the son of Hadhrat Sahibzada Mirza Mansoor Ahmad Sahib. Sahibzada Mirza Masroor Ahmad Sahib did his primary education at Taleem-ul-Islam High School Rabwah, and obtained his BA from Taleemul-Islam (TI) College Rabwah, Pakistan. In 1976 he earned his Masters of Science degree in Agricultural Economics from the Agriculture University Faisalabad, Pakistan. He is currently expanding the Mosque, Semenary and education programs of the community