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Vocational education

Vocational education prepares learners for certain careers or professions, which are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a trade, occupation or 'vocation' in which the learner participates.

Vocational education is in most cases a form of secondary or post-secondary education. In some cases, vocational education can contribute towards a tertiary education at a university as academic credit however, it is rarely considered in its own form to fall under the traditional defintion of a higher education.

Up until the end of the twentieth century, vocational education focused on trades, for example building, agriculture and crafts, and was therefore associated with the activities of lower social classes. As a consequence, it has attracted a level of stigma.

However, as the labour market becomes more specialised and economies are demanding more skills, governments and business are increasingly investing in the future of vocational education through publicy funded training organisations and subsidised apprenticeship or traineeship initiatives for businesses.

Vocational education has diversified over the last century and now exists in industries such as retail, tourism, IT, funeral services and cosmetics.

The largest and the most unified system of vocational education was created in Soviet Union (see PTU, Tehnikum). But it became less effective with the transition of post-Soviet countries to market economy.

Vocational education is related to the age-old apprenticeship system of learning.


Achilles, C. M.; Lintz, M.N.; and Wayson, W.W. "Observations on Building Public Confidence in Education." EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION AND POLICY ANALYSIS 11 no. 3 (1989): 275-284.

Banach, Banach, and Cassidy. THE ABC COMPLETE BOOK OF SCHOOL MARKETING. Ray Township, MI: Author, 1996.

Brodhead, C. W. "Image 2000: A Vision for Vocational Education." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 66, no. 1 (January 1991): 22-25.

Buzzell, C.H. "Let Our Image Reflect Our Pride." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 10.

O'Connor, P.J., and Trussell, S.T. "The Marketing of Vocational Education." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 31-32.

Ries, E. "To 'V' or Not to 'V': for Many the Word 'Vocational' Doesn't Work." TECHNIQUES 72, no. 8 (November-December 1997): 32-36.

Ries, A., and Trout, J. THE 22 IMMUTABLE LAWS OF MARKETING. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993.

Sharpe, D. "Image Control: Teachers and Staff Have the Power to Shape Positive Thinking." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 68, no. 1 (January 1993): 26-27.

Shields, C.J. "How to Market Vocational Education." CURRICULUM REVIEW (November 1989): 3-5

Silberman, H.F. "Improving the Status of High School Vocational Education." EDUCATIONAL HORIZONS 65, no. 1 (Fall 1986): 5-9.

Tuttle, F.T. "Let's Get Serious about Image-Building." VOCATIONAL EDUCATION JOURNAL 62, no. 8 (November-December 1987): 11.

"What Do People Think of Us?" TECHNIQUES 72, no. 6 (September 1997): 14-15.

External Links

  • Choosing a Career or Vocational School
  • U.S. Job Training and Vocational Education Programs
  • Vocational Education's Image for the 21st Century
  • Constructivism, Workplace Learning, and Vocational Education
  • The Business of Vocational Education
  • Reducing the Dropout Rate through Career and Vocational Education
  • Vocational Education Performance Standards
  • Employers' Expectations of Vocational Education

See also

Last updated: 02-10-2005 22:14:22
Last updated: 03-05-2005 20:08:33