Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. In the case of non-human animals, this is also called spaying. It is a form of sterilization.

The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.

In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.

In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.

Oophorectomy is sometimes referred to as castration, but that term is most often used to mean the removal of a male animal's testicles.

See also

Umar ibn al-Khattab

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Umar ibn al-Khattab, al-Farooq (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب) (c. 581 - November, 644), sometimes referred to as Umar Farooq or just as Omar or Umar, was the second caliph of Islam and one of the first four caliphs, also referred to as the Khulfa-e-Rashidun (or "Rightly Guided Caliphs") by the Sunnis.

Umar was born in Mecca around 581 to the Adi clan of the Quraish tribe. Umar belonged to a family of average class, but he was able to become literate and was well known for his physical strength, becoming a champion wrestler. When Muhammad first declared his message of Islam, Umar took it as a sacrilege upon the idolatry of the Quraish and his ancestors. Umar was well known for his hot temper, and one day he resolved to kill Muhammad. However, he was stopped on his way to Muhammad's house with news of his sister's conversion to Islam. This news caused him to make a detour to his sister's house, where he found both her and her husband with Khabab ibn 'Arit who was reading a verse (Surah 20. Ta-ha) from the Quran which was written on a leaf. Umar was initially angered by this and began threatening them and accidentally struck his sister, but their resolve and fearlessness and the sight of his sister bleeding led Umar to a change of heart. He asked to read what they were reading, and he was instantly changed. Rather than killing Muhammad, he set out to his house to accept Islam.

Umar's conversion to Islam strengthened its standing in the city of Mecca due to Umar's reputation as a great warrior and many of the Quraish who would torture the Muslims began to stop out of fear of Umar. Umar would be part of the first emigration to Medina, and became an important companion of Muhammad. Umar is credited with originating the adhan, as he saw it in a dream. He also participated in all of the Muslim battles against the Quraish. Upon the death of Muhammad, Umar was in such a state of despair that he threatened to decapitate anyone who said that Muhammad was indeed dead. Abu Bakr calmed Umar and others, putting the death of Muhammad into perspective by saying, "If you worship Muhammad, know that he is dead; if you worship Allah, then know that He is everlasting and will never die."

Abu Bakr became the first successor to Muhammad. During Abu Bakr's short reign as caliph, Umar was one of his chief advisors, and Abu Bakr selected Umar as his successor prior to his death.

Umar reigned as caliph from 633 until his assassination in 644. Umar's time as caliph would see the Islamic empire grow at an unprecedented rate, taking Iraq and parts of Iran from the Sassanids (and effectively ending that empire), and taking Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armenia from the Byzantines. Umar also codified Islamic law, and was known for his simple lifestyle and modest living. So much so, that a famous story tells of him arriving in Jerusalem walking beside his camel upon which his servant was sitting.

Umar died in 644, the victim of an assassin's dagger. Umar's killer was a Persian slave who was angered by a personal quarrel with Umar; he stabbed the Caliph six times as Umar led prayers in the Masjid al Nabawi mosque in Medina. Umar died two days later, and was buried there alongside Muhammad and Abu Bakr. Prior to dying, he appointed a council of six men to appoint his successor from amongst them. They chose Uthman ibn Affan.

Preceded by:
Abu Bakr


Succeeded by:
Uthman ibn Affan


The family name Farooqui (alternative spellings, Farooqi, Faruqi, etc.) is maintained by families claiming descent from Umar.

Last updated: 02-11-2005 03:09:10