Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. In the case of non-human animals, this is also called spaying. It is a form of sterilization.

The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.

In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.

In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.

Oophorectomy is sometimes referred to as castration, but that term is most often used to mean the removal of a male animal's testicles.

See also


Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and has a coastline on the Caspian Sea.

Türkmenistanyn Respublikasy Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan_flag_large.png 140px
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: none
Official language Turkmen
Capital Ashgabat
President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 51st
488,100 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 113th
 - Declared
 - Recognised
From Soviet Union
October 27, 1991
Currency Turkmen manat
Time zone UTC +5
National anthem Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem
Internet TLD .tm
Calling Code 993


Main article: History of Turkmenistan

Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became the Turkmen SSR, a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.


Main article: Politics of Turkmenistan

President Saparmurat Niyazov retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. An all pervasive cult of personality is in place, with President Niyazov as Turkmenbashi ("The Leader of all Turkmens"). His face adorns almost everything in Turkmenistan, from banknotes to bottles of vodka. A slogan popular among Turkmens is "Halk! Watan! Türkmenbashy!" meaning "People! Motherland! Leader!".


Main article: Welayatlar of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is divided into 5 welayatlar (singular - welayat):


Main article: Geography of Turkmenistan

Map of Turkmenistan
Map of Turkmenistan

The country is approximately 488,100 square kilometers. 90% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The center of country is dominated by Turan Depression and Garagum Desert which are flatlands which occupy nearly 80% of the country's area. The Kopetdag Range , along the southwestern border, reaches 2,912 meters. The Balkan Mountains in the far west and the Kugitang Range in the far east are the only other appreciable elevations. Rivers include the Amu Darya and Hari Rud.

The climate is subtropical desert, with little rainfall. Winters are mild and dry, with most precipitation falling between January and May. Heaviest precipitation is in the Kopetdag Range.

Other cities include:


Main article: Economy of Turkmenistan

One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it the world's 10th-largest producer; and it possesses the world's fifth-largest reserves of natural gas as well as substantial oil resources. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit.

Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan has suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply because of higher international oil and gas prices. Prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms.

President Niyazov has squandered much of his country's revenue on self-glorification, with cities, Ashgabat in particular, being given extensive renovations whilst the people living outside the capital struggle in conditions of poverty. President Niyazov has pledged free water, electricity and gas, however, shortages are frequent.


Main article: Demographics of Turkmenistan


Main article: Culture of Turkmenistan

Miscellaneous topics

Countries in Central Asia

PRC (China) | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Mongolia | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
Armenia | Azerbaijan | Belarus | Georgia | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Moldova | Russia | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Ukraine | Uzbekistan

Last updated: 02-07-2005 09:54:50