Regions with subarctic climate are characterized by very cold winters, and brief, often warm, summers. This kind of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: In winter, temperature can drop to -40° Celsius and at summer, the temperature may reach 30° Celsius. Most subarctic reagions are also affected by inland climate .
Vegetation in subarctic climates is usually sparse, as only hardy spieces can survive the long winter and make use of the short summer. Trees are mostly limited to ferns and evergreen conifers, as few broadleafed trees are able to survive the low temperatures in winter.