Péter was born in Budapest, Hungary. She attended Eötvös Loránd University, where she received her Ph.D. in 1935. During the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany, she was forbidden from teaching. After the war she published her key work, Recursive Functions. She taught at Eötvös Loránd University from 1955 until her retirement in 1975.
(see also Ackermann function)
Péter, Rózsa. (1943) 1962. Playing with Infinity: Mathematics for Everyman. Translated by Z. P. Dienes, Simon and Schuster; Dover Books edition, 1977.
Péter, Rózsa. 1967. Recursive Functions. Translated by István Földes. New York: Academic Press.
Péter, Rózsa. (1964) 1990. "Mathematics is Beautiful." Translated by Leon Harkleroad. The Mathematical Intelligencer 12: 58-64.