Oophorectomy

Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries of a female animal. In the case of non-human animals, this is also called spaying. It is a form of sterilization.

The removal of the ovaries together with the Fallopian tubes is called salpingo-oophorectomy. Oophorectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy are not common forms of birth control in humans; more usual is tubal ligation, in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked but the ovaries remain intact.

In humans, oophorectomy is most usually performed together with a hysterectomy - the removal of the uterus. Its use in a hysterectomy when there are no other health problems is somewhat controversial.

In animals, spaying involves an invasive removal of the ovaries, but rarely has major complications; the superstition that it causes weight gain is not based on fact. Spaying is especially important for certain animals that require the ovum to be released at a certain interval (called estrus or "heat"), such as cats and dogs. If the cell is not released during these animal's heat, it can cause severe medical problems that can be averted by spaying or partnering the animal with a male.

Oophorectomy is sometimes referred to as castration, but that term is most often used to mean the removal of a male animal's testicles.

See also


Romanization

A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word. The latter can be subdivided into phonological transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision. Each romanization has its own set of rules for pronunciation of the romanized words.

In antiquity, Romanization or Latinization was also the imposition of Roman culture and language.

To romanize is to transliterate or transcribe a language into the Roman alphabet. This process is most commonly associated with the Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages (CJK). Cyrillization is the similar process of representing a language using the Cyrillic alphabet.

Contents

Overview

The chart below shows the most common phonemic transcription romanization used for several different alphabets. While it is sufficient for many casual users, there are multiple alternatives used for each alphabet, and many exceptions. For details, consult each of the language sections below. (Because the number of Hangul characters are prohibitively large, only the first characters are provided in the following table.)

ROMANIZED Greek Cyrillic (Russian) Hebrew Arabic Katakana Hangul
A A А ַ, ֲ, ָ دَ, دَ, ﺍ ﺎ, دَىا
AI י ַ
B Б בּ ﺏ ﺑ ﺒ ﺐ
CH Χ Ч
CHI
D Δ Д ד ﺩ ﺪ, ﺽ ﺿ ﻀ ﺾ
DH ﺫ ﺬ
E Ε Э , ֱ, י ֵֶ, ֵ, י ֶ
F Φ Ф פ (final ף ) ﻑ ﻓ ﻔ ﻒ
FU
G Γ Г ג
GH ﻍ ﻏ ﻐ ﻎ
H ח, ה ﻩ ﻫ ﻬ ﻪ, ﺡ ﺣ ﺤ ﺢ
HA
HE
HI
HO
I Η, Ι, Υ И ִ, י ִ دِ
IY دِي
J ﺝ ﺟ ﺠ ﺞ
JJ
K Κ К כּ (final ךּ ), ק ﻙ ﻛ ﻜ ﻚ
KA
KE
KH Х כ (final ך ) ﺥ ﺧ ﺨ ﺦ
KI
KK
KO
KU
L Λ Л ל ﻝ ﻟ ﻠ ﻞ
M Μ М מ (final ם ) ﻡ ﻣ ﻤ ﻢ
MA
ME
MI
MO
MU
N Ν Н נ (final ן ) ﻥ ﻧ ﻨ ﻦ
NA
NE
NI
NO
NU
O Ο, Ω О , ֳ, וֹֹ
P Π П פּ (final ףּ )
PP
PS Ψ
Q ﻕ ﻗ ﻘ ﻖ
R Ρ Р ר ﺭ ﺮ
RA
RE
RI
RO
RU
S Σ С ס, שֹ ﺱ ﺳ ﺴ ﺲ, ﺹ ﺻ ﺼ ﺺ
SA
SE
SH Ш ש ﺵ ﺷ ﺸ ﺶ
SHCH Щ
SHI
SO
SS
SU
T Τ Т ט, תּ, ת ﺕ ﺗ ﺘ ﺖ, ﻁ ﻃ ﻄ ﻂ
TA
TE
TH Θ ﺙ ﺛ ﺜ ﺚ
TO
TS Ц צ (final ץ )
TSU
TT
U У , וֻּ دُ
UW دُو
V B В ב, ו, וו
W ﻭ ﻮ
WA
WE
WI
WO
X Ξ
Y Й, Ы י ﻱ ﻳ ﻴ ﻲ
YA Я
YE Е
YO Ё
YU Ю
Z Ζ З ז ﺯ ﺰ, ﻅ ﻇ ﻈ ﻆ
ZH Ж


Methods of romanization

If the romanization attempts to transliterate the original script, the guiding principle is a one-to-one mapping of characters in the source language into the target script, with less emphasis on how the result sounds when pronounced according to the reader's language. For example, the Nihon-shiki romanization of Japanese allows the informed reader to reconstruct the original Japanese kana syllables with 100% accuracy, but is not readable without prior study.

However, most romanizations are intended for the casual reader, who is unfamiliar with the intricacies of the original script and is more interested in pronouncing the source language. Such romanizations follow the principle of transcription and attempt to render the significant sounds (phonemes) of the original as faithfully as possible in the target language. The popular Hepburn romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers.

A phonetic conversion goes one step further and attempts to depict all phones in the source language, sacrificing legibility if necessary by using characters or conventions not found in the target script. The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most common system of phonetic transcription.

For most language pairs, building a usable romanization involves tradeoffs between the two extremes. Pure transcriptions are generally not possible, as the source language usually contains sounds and distinctions not found in target language, but which must be denoted to achieve comprehensibility. Romanization of Chinese, in particular, has proved a very difficult problem, although the issue is further complicated by political considerations.

In general, outside a limited audience of scholars, romanizations tend to lean more towards transcription. As an example, consider the Japanese martial art 柔術: the Nihon-shiki romanization zyūzyutu may allow an expert to reconstruct the kana syllables じゅうじゅつ, but most people would find the Hepburn version jūjutsu more pronouncable.

Arabic language

There are numerous methods of romanization for Arabic, but DIN-31635 and SATTS are among the more common choices.

Belarusian language

The Belarusian language has been written with both Cyrillic and Latin scripts.   Today the Latin script (Łacinka or Łacinica) is rarely used (although it has its advocates).   Still it would seem that Belarusian has already a native romanization system, so we need not to invent anything.   However, usually Belarusian names are transcribed differently, using a system like that for the Russian language.   Names are then changed like this: Homiel → Homyel', Mahiloŭ → Mahilyow, Viciebsk → Vitsebsk, Baranavičy → Baranavichy, Žytkavičy → Zhytkavichy etc.

Chinese language

Some languages have more than one system of romanization. Mandarin, for example, has several, including Hanyu Pinyin, Wade-Giles, Yale, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, MPS II, Postal System Pinyin, Tongyong Pinyin, and Latinxua Sin Wenz; and Cantonese has Jyutping, penkyamp, Gwohngdongwaa pengyam, Sidney Lau , Barnett-Chao , Meyer-Wempe , and EFEO.

In Mainland China, Hanyu Pinyin has been used officially for decades, primarily as a linguistic tool for teaching Standard Mandarin (the standardized Chinese spoken language) to students whose mother tongue is not Standard Mandarin, and has been adopted by much of the international community as a standard for writing Chinese words and names in the Roman alphabet. The value of Hanyu Pinyin in education in China lies in the fact that China, like any other populated area with comparable area and population, has literally thousands of distinct dialects, though there is just one common written language and one common standardized spoken form.

See also:

Greek language

See Greeklish.

Indic language

There is a long tradition in the west to study Sanskrit and other Indic texts in Latin transliteration. Various transliteration conventions have been used for Indic scripts since the time of Sir William Jones. In 2001, a standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard, which very much resembles the "Library of Congress" and IAST schemes. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script. Other schemes use upper and lower case and doubling of letters, to avoid the use of diacritics. The Indian character encoding standard ISCII treats the romanized form as one among many script choices.

See also:

Japanese language

Main article: Romaji

Romanization (or, more strictly, Roman letters) in Japanese is called "romaji". Common systems include Hepburn and Kunrei-shiki, which is also known as ISO 3602, the system approved by ISO.

Korean language

Main article: Korean romanization

Until 2002, the official system in South Korea was the McCune-Reischauer system, which is still used in North Korea. Today, South Korea officially uses the revised version of Romanization that was approved in 2000. Road signs and textbooks are required to follow these rules as soon as possible, at a cost estimated by the government to be at least US$20 million. Proper names are still left to personal preference, but the government encourages using the new system. A third system—the Yale Romanization system—is used mainly in academic literature. During the period of Russian interest in Korea at the beginning of the 20th century, attempts were also made at representing Korean in Cyrillic.

Russian language

There is no single universally accepted system of writing Russian using the Latin script — in fact there are a huge number of such systems: some are adjusted for a particular target language (e.g. German or French), some are designed as a librarian's transliteration, some are prescribed for Russian traveller's passports; the transcription of some names is purely traditional.   All this has resulted in great reduplication of names.   E.g. the name of the great Russian composer Tchaikovsky may also be written as Tchaykovsky, Tchajkovskij, Tchaikowski, Tschaikowski, Czajkowski, Čajkovskij, Čajkovski, Chajkovskij, Chaykovsky, Chaykovskiy, Chaikovski etc.

See also

Thai language

See

External links


Last updated: 02-03-2005 13:18:09