Popular Monarchy is a system of monarchical governance which came into occasional usage in the nineteenth century1 in which the monarch's title is linked with the people, rather than the state. It was the norm in earlier times, when kings were considered to govern peoples rather than well-defined states; for example, in the Middle Ages, Scottish kings such as Robert the Bruce were known as Kings of the Scots, not as Kings of Scotland.
- Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland not Queen of the Britons.
- Queen Margrethe II is Queen of Denmark, not Queen of the Danes.
- King Juan Carlos is King of Spain not King of the Spanish.
- Queen Beatrix is Queen of the Netherlands not Queen of the Dutch.
1 The form was first used in a constitutional setting in the 1791 Constitution of France, which changed King Louis XVI's title from the traditional form of King of France to King of the French. When his brother returned to the throne as King Louis XVIII of France following the fall of Napoleon, he reverted to the traditional form, King of France.