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A palindrome is a word, phrase, number or any other sequence of units (like a strand of DNA) which has the property of reading the same in either direction (the adjustment of spaces between letters is generally permitted). The word "palindrome" comes from the Greek words palin ("back") and dromos ("racecourse"). Writing literature in palindromes is an example of constrained writing.

According to Bill Bryson's Mother Tongue: English & How It Got That Way (p. 227): "Palindromes … are at least 2,000 years old. The ancient Greeks often put "ΝΙΨΟΝΑΝΟΜΗΜΑΤΑΜΗΜΟΝΑΝΟΨΙΝ" (or, in mixed case with [modern] accents and divided into words, Νίψον ανομήματα μη μόναν όψιν: "Nipson anomēmata mē monan opsin") on fountains (ps, ψ, is one letter in Greek, called psi), meaning "Wash the sin as well as the face." The Romans admired them, too, as demonstrated by "In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni" ("We enter the circle at night and are consumed by fire"), which was said to describe the action of moths.

The Latin palindrome "Sator Arepo tenet opera rotas" (roughly "The farmer by his labour keeps the wheels to the plough") is remarkable for the fact that it reproduces itself also if one forms a word from the first letters, then the second letters and so forth. Hence it can also be arranged into a square which can be read either horizontally or vertically:

 S A T O R
 A R E P O
 T E N E T
 O P E R A
 R O T A S

Palindromes occur in many western languages, but they are particularly prevalent in English due to the wide variety and frequent reversal of letter pairs within words. Finnish, however, has been described as "the language of palindromes."

Japanese palindromes, called kaibun, rely on the hiragana syllabary, like the word "shinbunshi" (newsprint). Their syllabary makes it possible to make very long palindromes.

Chinese palindromes are relatively easy to create due to the structure of written Chinese. For example: 我愛媽媽,媽媽愛我 ("I love Mom; Mom loves me")—this is usually the first palindrome learned by Chinese kids. Numerous palindromes can be created by replacing "媽媽"(Mom) with any person. As a result, only very special palindromes are worth mentioning.

In genetics, a palindromic DNA sequence can form a hairpin.

Examples of palindromic words and phrases:


Symmetry by sound

In Japanese:

  • Ta-ke-ya-bu ya-ke-ta (竹薮焼けた) - A bamboo grove has been burned.
  • Wa-ta-shi ma-ke-ma-shi-ta-wa (私負けましたわ) - I have lost.
  • Na-ga-ki yo-no to-ho-no ne-bu-ri-no mi-na me-za-me na-mi-no-ri-bu-ne-no o-to-no-yo-ki-ka-na (長き世の 遠の眠りの 皆目覚め 波乗り船の 音の良きかな) - Tanka

In Korean:

  • Da keun do-ra-ji-il-ji-ra-do keun-da. (다 큰 도라지일지라도 큰다.) - Even full-grown balloonflower will grow.
  • Ga-ryeon-ha-si-da sa-jang-jip a-deul-ddal-deul-a jip-jang-sa da-si ha-ryeon-ga. (가련하시다 사장집 아들딸들아 집장사 다시 하련가.) - Pityful are the president's siblings - will they come back to estate agentry?

The Icelandic music-band Sigur Rós composed a song on their album Ágćtis Byrjun, which partly sounds the same, playing forwards or backwards. Not only symmetric from the notes, but also symmetric in the sound by mixing the reverse music over the original. The song - named Staralfur - can be downloaded at their website under

The interlude from Alban Berg's opera, Lulu is a palindrome, as are sections and pieces, in arch form, by many other composers, including James Tenney (swell), and most famously Béla Bartók's (and influenced by him Steve Reich).

See also crab canon, in classical music: a canon in which one line of the melody is reversed in time and pitch from the other.

Symmetry by the characters

Remark: Characters include letters and CJK characters.

  • Aibohphobia, the fear of palindromes (not necessarily recognized as a real word), is itself a palindrome
  • ABBA
  • Radar (acronym from RAdio Detection And Ranging, so it's self-defining too - i. e., the word "bounces back" like a radar signal)
  • Rotor ("it goes round and round and back and forth")
  • Rotator
  • Rotary gyrator
  • Rotavator (trademark for a kind of harvesting equipment)
  • Glenelg (place name in Scotland and Australia)
  • Live Evil (used as an album title by, amongst others, the metal band Black Sabbath and jazz trumpeter Miles Davis)
  • redivider (the longest 'natural' palindrome in English)
  • Malayalam (language spoken in Kerala, India)
  • tattarrattat, the longest palindrome in the Oxford English Dictionary, coined by James Joyce in Ulysses for a knock on the door
  • Madam, I'm Adam. (Eve's answer in Spanish is below.)
  • Do geese see God?
  • Dennis sinned.
  • Dennis and Edna sinned. (This is the first of a long list of possible extensions to the previous palindrome.)
  • Koselure Mordni La Palindrome rules - OK
  • God hexes sex, eh dog? (written by Kingturtle)
  • Naomi did I moan?
  • Sex at noon taxes.
  • Able was I, ere I saw Elba. (the famous 'Napoleon's Lament', source unknown)
  • Ten animals I slam in a net.
  • Was it Eliot's toilet I saw? (Bill Bryson)
  • A Man, a plan, a canal - Panama! (Leigh Mercer)
    • Zeus saw 'twas Suez! (a refutation of the above by Lee M)
    • A man, a plan, a canoe, pasta, heros, rajahs, a coloratura, maps, snipe, percale, macaroni, a gag, a banana bag, a tan, a tag, a banana bag again, or: a camel, a crepe, pins, spam, a rut, a Rolo, cash, a jar, sore hats, a peon, a canal -- Panama! (attributed to Guy Steele)
    • A man, a plan, a caret, a ban, a myriad, a sum, a lac, a liar, a hoop, a pint, a catalpa, a gas, an oil, a bird, a yell, a vat, a caw, a pax, a wag, a tax, a nay, a ram, a cap, a yam, a gay, a tsar, a wall, a car, a luger, a ward, a bin, a woman, a vassal, a wolf, a tuna, a nit, a pall, a fret, a watt, a bay, a daub, a tan, a cab, a datum, a gall, a hat, a fag, a zap, a say, a jaw, a lay, a wet, a gallop, a tug, a trot, a trap, a tram, a torr, a caper, a top, a tonk, a toll, a ball, a fair, a sax, a minim, a tenor, a bass, a passer, a capital, a rut, an amen, a ted, a cabal, a tang, a sun, an ass, a maw, a sag, a jam, a dam, a sub, a salt, an axon, a sail, an ad, a wadi, a radian, a room, a rood, a rip, a tad, a pariah, a revel, a reel, a reed, a pool, a plug, a pin, a peek, a parabola, a dog, a pat, a cud, a nu, a fan, a pal, a rum, a nod, an eta, a lag, an eel, a batik, a mug, a mot, a nap, a maxim, a mood, a leek, a grub, a gob, a gel, a drab, a citadel, a total, a cedar, a tap, a gag, a rat, a manor, a bar, a gal, a cola, a pap, a yaw, a tab, a raj, a gab, a nag, a pagan, a bag, a jar, a bat, a way, a papa, a local, a gar, a baron, a mat, a rag, a gap, a tar, a decal, a tot, a led, a tic, a bard, a leg, a bog, a burg, a keel, a doom, a mix, a map, an atom, a gum, a kit, a baleen, a gala, a ten, a don, a mural, a pan, a faun, a ducat, a pagoda, a lob, a rap, a keep, a nip, a gulp, a loop, a deer, a leer, a lever, a hair, a pad, a tapir, a door, a moor, an aid, a raid, a wad, an alias, an ox, an atlas, a bus, a madam, a jag, a saw, a mass, an anus, a gnat, a lab, a cadet, an em, a natural, a tip, a caress, a pass, a baronet, a minimax, a sari, a fall, a ballot, a knot, a pot, a rep, a carrot, a mart, a part, a tort, a gut, a poll, a gateway, a law, a jay, a sap, a zag, a fat, a hall, a gamut, a dab, a can, a tabu, a day, a batt, a waterfall, a patina, a nut, a flow, a lass, a van, a mow, a nib, a draw, a regular, a call, a war, a stay, a gam, a yap, a cam, a ray, an ax, a tag, a wax, a paw, a cat, a valley, a drib, a lion, a saga, a plat, a catnip, a pooh, a rail, a calamus, a dairyman, a bater, a canal - Panama! (Developed in 1984 by Dan Hoey with computer assistance).
  • Too far, Edna, we wander afoot. (Bill Bryson)
  • Yawn! Madonna fan? No damn way!
  • Tarzan raised a Desi Arnaz rat. (Baby Gramps)
  • Norma is as selfless as I am, Ron. (W. H. Auden)
  • Go hang a salami. I'm a lasagna hog. (Baby Gramps)
  • Sums are not set as a test on Erasmus. (W. H. Auden)
  • Satan, oscillate my metallic sonatas. (Stephen Fry)
  • No, it is opposed, art sees trades opposition. (W. H. Auden,on a discussion of photography vs. painting)
  • Straw? No, too stupid a fad. I put soot on warts. (Leigh Mercer)
  • No, son, onanism's a gross orgasm sin: a no-no, son.
  • Are we not drawn onward, we few, drawn onward to new era? (Bill Bryson)
  • Rettebs, I flahd noces, eh? Ttu, but the second half is better. (Stephen Fry)
  • Doc, note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diet on cod. (Peter Hilton )
  • "It's Ade, Cilla, Sue, Dame Vita, Edna, Nino, Emo! Come on in and eat, I've made us all iced asti." (Stephen Fry)
  • "Peel's foe (not a set animal) laminates a tone of sleep." (Lyrics from Kew Rhone )
  • "Lewd did I live, & evil I did dwel." (John Taylor, the Water Poet)
  • "Rats live on no evil star" (from the novel Swords of Lankhmar by Fritz Leiber)
  • "On a clover, if alive, erupts a vast, pure evil: a fire volcano"
  • "Pull up if I pull up".
  • "Sit on a potato pan, Otis!" (source unknown)
  • "Reviled did I live, said I, as evil I did deliver."
  • "Rise to vote sir" (The Simpsons)
  • "Named undenominationally rebel, I rile Beryl? La, no! I tan. I'm, O Ned, nude, man!" (Cited by Martin Gardner)

In Chinese:

  • 我愛媽媽,媽媽愛我: "I love Mom, Mom loves me"
  • 客上天然居,居然天上客.
  • 人過大佛寺,寺佛大過人: "A man walks past Big Buddha Temple; the temple's Buddha is bigger than a man"
  • 人人為我,我為人人: "Everybody cares about me, I care about everybody"
  • 船上女子叫子女上船: "The woman on the boat is calling her children to go onboard" --- copy from 回文遊戲 (Palindrome Games)

In Czech:

  • Kobyla má malý bok: "A mare has a small hip"

In Danish:

  • En af dem der red med fane: "One of these riding with standard"
  • Gid da den dame sĺ de sřrens asner řse dĺsemad ned ad dig: "If only that lady saw those bastards pour canned food over you"

In Dutch:

  • parterretrap: "stairway to the ground floor"
  • nepparterreserretrappen (less serious extension of the previous): "fake stairways from the ground floor to the sun lounge"
  • Mooie zeden in Ede zei oom "Nice customs in Ede said uncle"
  • Baas, neem een racecar neem een Saab "Boss, use a racecar, use a Saab"
  • Nogawagon "Nougat wagon"

In Estonian:

  • Aias sadas saia: "It rains white bread in the garden."

In Finnish there are two 25-letter palindromes:

  • Solutomaattimittaamotulos: "the result from a measurement laboratory for tomatoes"
  • Saippuakuppinippukauppias: "soap cup batch trader"
  • Saippuakauppias: "a soap vendor" (perhaps the most known Finnish palindrome)
  • Seimi mies: "A manger man"
  • Takat: "fireplaces"
  • Tilit: "bank accounts"
  • Tikit: "stitches"
  • Tofu ufot: "Tofu ufos"

Longer forms:

  • Atte kumiorava, varo imuketta!: "Rubber squirrel Atte, beware the cigarette holder!"
  • Ana, kanna kana: "Ana, carry a hen"
  • No Allah, halla on: "Well, Allah, it's frost."

The comedic ensemble Alivaltiosihteeri (literally: "State Undersecretary") has composed whole books of palindromic poems.

In French:

  • elle: "she"
  • Laval
  • "Esope reste ici et se repose": "Aesop is resting here and relaxing"

Longer forms:

  • élu par cette crapule: "elected by that toad"
  • la mariée ira mal: "the married woman will be ill"
  • Eh, ça va la vache?: "Hey, how you doing, cow ?"

In German: (see also: Palindrome)

  • Ein Neger mit Gazelle zagt im Regen nie.: "A negro with a gazelle never hesitates in the rain"
  • Reliefpfeiler
  • Rentner: "retiree"
  • Lagerregal: "storage rack"
  • Tat: "act"

In Hungarian:

  • Géza, kék az ég: "Géza, the sky is blue."
  • Rám német nem lel, elmentem én már: "The Germans won't find me, I'm already gone." (1943)
  • Indul a görög aludni: "The greek goes to sleep."
  • Rémes tóga bagót sem ér: "Crap chiton worths nothing."
  • Erőszakos kannak sok a szőre: "Aggressive males have lots of hair."
  • Keresik a tavat a kis erek: "Small streams look for the lake."
  • Kis erek mentén, láp sík ölén odavan a bánya rabja: jaj, Baranyában a vadon élő Kis Pálnét nem keresik!: "Along the small streams and in the flat lap of the moorland gone the prisoner of the mine: oh, nobody looks for Ms. Kis Pál who lived in the woods of Baranya." (Created by Demők Béla.)

In Inuit:

  • qajaq: "kayak" (and so also a palindrome in English and some other languages).

In Italian:

  • acca: the letter H
  • alla: "to the" (feminine singular)
  • ebbe: "(he) had" (past historic)
  • elle: the letter L
  • emme: the letter M
  • enne: the letter N
  • erre: the letter R
  • esse: the letter S
  • osso: "bone"
  • otto: "eight"
  • Ai lati d'Italia: "at Italy's borders"
  • accavallavacca: cow-crosser
  • È Dio, lo gnomo mongoloide?: Is the mongoloid gnome God?
  • Avida di vita, desiai ogni amore vero, ma ingoiai sedativi, da Diva: "eager of life, I desired every real love, but I ended swallowing pills, like a Diva"
  • A complete Palindrome poetry, written by Roberto Morassi:
Ode a Roma Dorata

O citta' nuova, ti balen'Amore,
l'arte t'annoda. Ci nuota, la sera,
Morte ideale. Vidi matto, ratto,
serrarti, Diva, i nitidi livelli
ma i lati d'Eva, no ! Nave d'Italia
mille vili ditini avidi trarre
sott'a'rottami di vela, e dietro
mare salato, unica donna: te!
Tra le romane l'abitavo, un attico....
A. Taro (d'amor aedo)

In Latin:

  • Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor. (Quintilian)
  • Si bene te tua laus taxat, sua laute tenebis. (Plinius )
  • Subi dura a rudibus. "Endure hardships from the rude."
  • Signa te, signa, temere me tangis et angis.
  • Adoro te animo, domina et oro da.
  • Meritis servi sinum munis ivres sitirem.
  • Aspice'nam raro mittit timor arma nec ipsa.
  • Si se mente reget non tegeret Nemesis.
  • Sum summus mus. ("I am the mightiest mouse.")

In Lithuanian:

  • sėdėk užu kėdės: a phrase. Means "Sit over the seat!".

In Norwegian:

  • Regninger: The longest palindrome norwegian word. Means "bills".

in Polish:

  • oko: eye.
  • "Kobyła ma mały bok": ("A mare has small side.")
  • "Zakopane na pokaz"

in Portuguese:

  • "Socorram-me, subi no ônibus em Marrocos": ("Help me! I've climbed the bus in Morocco") (known as the biggest palindrome in portuguese)

In Slovene:

  • Ali se bo Ana obesila?: "Will Anna hang herself?"
  • Osem opitih hiti po meso: "Eight drunk people run to get meet"
  • Ema, zakaj ni vinjaka zame?: "Emma, why isn't there any brandy for me?"
  • Perica reže raci rep: "Laundress cuts duck's tail."

In Spanish:

  • Reconocer "to recognize"
  • Anita, la gorda lagartona, no traga la droga latina. "Anita, the big fat lizard, does not carry the Latin drug."
  • Dábale arroz a la zorra el abad. "The abbot was giving the vixen rice."
  • Sé verlas al revés.
  • La ruta natural. "the natural way"
  • Las Nemocón no comen sal. "The Nemocons don't eat salt."
  • Anás usó tu auto, Susana. "Anas used your auto, Susana."
  • Adán no cede con Eva, Yavé no cede con nada.
  • Así Mario oirá misa.
  • ˇAbusón, acá no suba!
  • Se corta Sarita a tiras atroces.
  • Amigo, no gima.
  • Anita lava la tina.
  • Es Adán, ya ve, yo soy Eva y nada sé. "It is Adam, I have seen, I am Eve and I know nothing."
  • Átale, demoníaco Caín, o me delata.
  • żBérgamo?, ˇno, Magreb!.
  • Mal si le das la fe falsa del Islam. "Evil if you give her the false faith of Islam."
  • ˇOro! ˇYa hay oro! "Gold"! There's gold already!"
  • O rey, o joyero. "The king or the jeweler."
  • Alá, yo soy de Mahoma el dios. Oídle a Mohamed: yo soy Alá. "Allah, I am the God of Mahoma. Hear Mohammed: I am Allah."
  • O sacáis ropa por si acaso.
  • Sometamos o matemos. "We submit or we kill."
  • Oír Aida en ópera: la lírica Cirila la repone a diario.
  • Allí por la tropa portado, traído a ese paraje de maniobras, una tipa como capitán usar boina me dejara, pese a odiar toda tropa por tal ropilla.

In Swedish:

  • Du har bra hud: Meaning "You've got good skin"
  • Ni rakar bra Karin: Meaning "You shave good Karin"
  • Ni talar bra latin: Meaning "You speak good latin"
  • Naturrutan: Meaning "Nature Square"
  • I Reval sitta ni, inatt i slaveri: Meaning "In Reval (Tallinn) you will sit, tonight in slavery"
  • Sirap i Paris: Meaning "Syrup in Paris"
  • God apa gavs galna anlag, svag apa dog: Meaning "Good monkey was given crazy abilities, weak monkey died.", note that all the spaces match, rare for longer palindromes
  • Dallasmygelmadamlegymsallad: Meaning "A wangling lady in Dallas' green salad".
  • Märk stupid abrakadabra: ur fin ränsel lyfta rappa japaner samma mimosa som i mammas rena pajapparat fylles när ni fruar bada karbad i putskräm: Meaning "Notice stupid abracadabra: from fine backpack swift Japanese the same mimosa as in mother's clean pie machine filles when you vifes bathed med bath in shoecream"

In Tagalog:

  • Sila aalis.: Meaning "They will leave."
  • Totorotot: Meaning "Trumpets will blare"
  • Para sa mansanas na masarap: Meaning "For a better-tasting apple"
  • O, tatayo yata to.: Meaning "Look, I think this will stand up."

In Arabic:

  • حصان ناصح
  • دام علا العماد
  • بكر معلق بقلع مركب
  • مودته تدوم لكل هول و هل كل مودته تدوم

In Hebrew

  • סוס - Horse
  • ישי - Yishai, David's father (Male first name)
  • דוד - David, Yishai's son (also uncle)
  • נתן - Nathan or Natan, David's son
  • לאיתיאל - (The longest palindromic word in the Bible)
  • ולכשתשכלו - And when you will bereave (The longest palindromic word in Hebrew with meaning)
  • ילד כותב בתוך דלי - A boy writes inside a bucket
  •  ? אבי אל חי שמך למה המלך משיח לא יבא - A question
  • דעו מאביכם כי לא בוש אבוש שוב אשוב אליכם כי בא מועד - An answer

As a url:

  • (links back here)

The world's longest palindromic sentence

To celebrate 20:02 02/20 2002, a palindromic day, Peter Norvig wrote on that day a computer program that produced the world's longest palindromic sentence: 17,259 words long. [1]

Symmetry by the words

Some palindromes use words as units rather than letters. They Might Be Giants released a single called I Palindrome I (on the album Apollo 18), the lyrics of which include the word palindrome: "Son I am able," she said, "though you scare me." "Watch," said I, "beloved," I said, "watch me scare you though." Said she, "able am I, Son."

Other examples:

  • You can cage a swallow, can't you, but you can't swallow a cage, can you?
  • Fall leaves as soon as leaves fall.

Symmetry by the lines

Still other take the line as the unit. The poem Doppleganger was composed by James A. Lindon.


Entering the lonely house with my wife
I saw him for the first time
Peering furtively from behind a bush --
Blackness that moved,
A shape amid the shadows,
A momentary glimpse of gleaming eyes
Revealed in the ragged moon.
A closer look (he seemed to turn) might have
Put him to flight forever --
I dared not
(For reasons that I failed to understand),
Though I knew I should act at once.
I puzzled over it, hiding alone,
Watching the woman as she neared the gate.
He came, and I saw him crouching
Night after night.
Night after night
He came, and I saw him crouching,
Watching the woman as she neared the gate.
I puzzled over it, hiding alone --
Though I knew I should act at once,
For reasons that I failed to understand
I dared not
Put him to flight forever.
A closer look (he seemed to turn) might have
Revealed in the ragged moon.
A momentary glimpse of gleaming eyes
A shape amid the shadows,
Blackness that moved.
Peering furtively from behind a bush,
I saw him for the first time,
Entering the lonely house with my wife.

Symmetry of dates and times

Palindromes can also be constructed using dates and times. The exact dates and times may differ according to the local style of writing dates and times.

  • 12/02/2021 for the 12th February of 2021, using the (DD/MM/YYYY) format; or the 2nd December of 2021, using the (MM/DD/YYYY) format
  • 10/30/2002 03:01 for the 30th October 2002, 3:01 AM, using the (MM/DD/YYYY HH:MM) format

See also

External link

Last updated: 10-24-2004 05:10:45