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Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking) is the capital city and center for economy, trade, commerce and politics of Jiangsu Province in the People's Republic of China. It is situated in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River at 32°03'N, 118°47'E. Nanjing is the second largest city in the region, Shanghai being first.

Nanjing, Jiangsu
Abbreviation: 宁 (pinyin: Ning)
Origin of Name 南 Nan - South
京 Jing - Capital
Put together - Southern Capital
Seat of Government Xuanwu District
Area 6421 km²
 - Total (Year)
 - Density
Ranked 1st
 - Total (Year)
 - per capita
Ranked xth
141.06 billion ¥
27128 ¥
put miscellaneous info, like tree, flower, language, religion etc. here
Administration Type Sub-provincial city
CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary Luo Zhijun
Mayor Jiang Hongshen
County-level divisions 13
Township-level divisions 129
Postal Code 210000--211300
Area Code 025
License Plate Prefix 苏A

Nanjing has been well known as a cultural and educational center in China for more than a thousand years. It is one of the four ancient capitals of China and was the capital for ten dynasties and/or kingdoms.



Nanjing had been the economic center for the Yangtze River delta region for hundreds of years. Its GDP per capita was ¥27128 (ca. US$3280) in 2003, ranked No.31 among 659 Chinese cities.


In 495 B.C. , the State of Wu established Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing city area.

The State of Yue conquered Wu and established Yuecheng 越城 in 473 B.C. .

The State of Chu established Jīnlíng (金陵) in this area in 333 B.C. .

The city has experienced numerous destructions and reconstructions.

At least three subsequent cities were constructed: Jiànkāng (建康) of AD 229 (it met total annihilation in AD 589 and became farmland thereafter), a later Jinling built in 914, and the early Ming capital Nánjīng constructed in 1366.

Nanjing was also the capital of the Taiping Rebellion in the mid-19th century.

After the Northern Expedition in 1928, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-Shek established Nanjing as the capital of China in opposition to a government in Beijing led by northern warlords, and an alternate government in Wuhan led by Wang Jingwei. After the completion of the Northern Expedition in 1931, Chiang's government became the only recognized Chinese government.

In 1937 the city fell to the Japanese, who massacred prisoners-of-war, refugees and its residents during the Battle of Nanjing (see Nanjing Massacre). Chiang moved his government to Chongqing City, and the Japanese established a puppet government in Nanjing under Wang Jingwei. After the end of World War II, Nanjing was reestablished as the capital of the Republic of China. In 1949, after the defeat of Chiang's forces on the Mainland, the capital of the People's Republic of China was established in Beijing. The Republic of China on Taiwan continues to recognize Nanjing as its "official" capital, while Taipei is deemed as only "temporary."


Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Five means of transportation such as railway, waterway, aviation constitute a three-dimensional and mass transport volume traffic network all-round.

Nanjing Port is a port for foreign trade leading to the Pacific ocean and western countries. The port area is 98 kilometres in full length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000.

Within Nanjing, there are over 60 highway long-distance passenger traffic lines leading to all parts of the province; the Tianjin-Pukou , Shanghai-Nanjing and Nanjing-Wuhu Trunk Railways meet in Nanjing which has become an important hub of railways linking north, east and central China. The main railway

After extension, the Nanjing International Airport has more than 20 air lines lea ding to all major cities in the country. Airlines such as Air China and Southern China serve the city. With the start of construction of the new airport, Nanjing will have a modernized airport.

There is an intricate system of buses for transporation inside the city. Taxis are also in no shortage.

Being one of six major telecommunication hubs in the country, Nanjing has a telecommunication network which is composed of multiple modes and linking with all parts of the country and all countries in the world.


Nanjing is a popular tourist city, with probably the largest number of heritage tourist sites in China, including the world's longest ancient circumvallation, the largest ancient imperial lake garden (Xuanwuhu Lake Park), and the greatest traditional Chinese commercial center (the Fuzimiao Temple Area).

Famous tourist attractions include:

  • Purple Mountain
  • Purple Mountain Observatory
  • The Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
  • Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum
  • Soul Valley Temple
  • Xuanwu Lake
  • Rain Flower Pebbles
  • Mochou Lake
  • Nanjing Museum
  • Zhanyuan Garden
  • Xuyuan Garden
  • Stone City
  • Qinhuaihe River
  • Ming-Dynasty Imperial Palace Remains


Nanjing have been an educational center of China for more than one thousand years. Nowadays, it boasts with some of the most prominent educational insitutions in the region, which are listed as follows;


  • Nanjing University (南京大学) (originated in 258, modernly founded in 1902)
  • Southeast University (东南大学)
  • HoHai University (河海大学)
  • Nanjing Agricultural University (南京农业大学)
  • China Pharmaceutical University (中国药科大学)
  • Nanjing University of Science & Technology (南京理工大学)
  • Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (南京航空航天大学)


  • Nanjing University of Technology (南京工业大学)
  • Nanjing Forestry University (南京林业大学)
  • Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (南京中医药大学)
  • Nanjing Normal University (南京师范大学)
  • Nanjing University of Finance & Economics (南京财经大学)
  • Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (南京邮电学院)
  • Nanjing Institute of Meteorology (南京气象学院)
  • Nanjing Institute of Physical Education (南京体育学院)
  • Nanjing Arts Institute (南京艺术学院)
  • Nanjing Audit University (南京审计学院)
  • Nanjing Xiaozhuang College (南京晓庄学院)
  • Jinling Institute of Technology (金陵科技学院)


  • Sanjiang University (三江学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

See also: Treaty of Nanjing

Last updated: 11-10-2004 16:04:15