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List of Pharaohs

This article contains a list of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, from the Early Dynastic Period before 3000 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, when Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

It should be noted that there are two women rulers of Egypt on this list of Pharaohs who chose not to take the title Pharaoh who were not Ptolemaic queen consorts (Sobeknefru and Twosret), due to the fact that Pharaoh was a male title. On this list, they are noted as "Queen ________."

Note that the dates given must be regarded in most instances as approximate. Dating systems for Egyptian studies are quite various, depending on how they are constructed and what assumptions are used. Presented below is one such interpretation, but it is assuredly not the only one.


Archaic period

The Archaic period includes the Early Dynastic Period , when Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt were ruled as separate kingdoms, and the First and Second Dynasties

Early dynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta.

Name Comments Dates
Tiu -  ?
Thesh -  ?
Hsekiu -  ?
Wazner - c.3050 BC?

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts.

Name Comments Dates
Ro - ?
Serket Also known as "Scorpion of Egypt" or "King Scorpion c.3150 BC
Narmer Considered by some to be the founder of the First Dynasty c.3050 BC

First Dynasty

The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Hor-Aha Menes in earlier lists, also known as Min and Meni c.3050 BC
Djer - 57 years
Merneith Regent for Djet -
Djet - -
Den - 14 to 20 years
Anedjib - 26 years
Semerkhet - 9 to 18 years
Qa'a - 2916 ?–2890

Second Dynasty

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy - 2890–?
Raneb - 39 years
Nynetjer - 23 years
Wneg - 8 years
Senedj - 20 years
Seth-Peribsen - 17 years
Khasekhemwy - ?–2686 BC

Old Kingdom

The Old Kingdom is period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilisation in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (2630 - 2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period.

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

Third Dynasty

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sanakhte - 2686-2668
Djoser Commissioned the Step Pyramid designed by Imhotep 2668-2649
Sekhemkhet - 2649-2643
Khaba - 2643-2637
Huni - 2637-2613

Fourth Dynasty

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
Sneferu - 2613-2589
Khufu Greek form Cheops 2589-2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) - 2566-2558
Khafra Greek form Chephren 2558-2532
- here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho -
Menkaura Greek form Mycerinus 2532-2503
Shepseskaf - 2503-2498
- here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho -

Fifth Dynasty

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Userkaf - 2498-2491
Sahure - 2487-2477
Neferirkare Kakai - 2477-2467
Shepseskare Isi - 2467-2460
Neferefre - 2460-2453
Nyuserre Ini - 2453-2422
Menkauhor Kaiu - 2422-2414
Djedkare Isesi - 2414-2375
Unas - 2375-2345

Sixth Dynasty

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Teti - 2345-2333
Userkare - 2333-2332
Pepi I Meryre - 2332-2283
Merenre Antyemsaf I - 2283-2278
Pepi II Neferkare - 2278-2184
Merenre Antyemsaf II Uncertain pharaoh. 2184
Nitiqret A rare female ruler. 2184-2183

First intermediate period

The First Intermediate Period is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by ineffeciency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Heracleopolis. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the pharaoh Inyotef defeated the Heracleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh Dynasty

The Seventh Dynasty ruled from 2181 to 2173 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Neferkare I - 2181- ?
Neferkare Neby -  ?
Djedure Shemai -  ?
Neferkare Khendu -  ?
Neferkamin -  ?
Nykare -  ?
Neferkare Tereru -  ?
Neferkahor -  ? -2173

Eighth Dynasty

The Eighth Dynasty ruled from 2173 to 2160 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Wadjkare Pepysonbe - 2173-2169
Neferkamin Anu - 2169-2167
Qakare Ibi - 2167-2163
Neferkare II - 2163-2162
Neferkauhor Kapuibi - 2162-2161
Neferirkare - 2161-2160

Ninth Dynasty

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160- ?
Meribre Khety II -  ?
Neferkare III -  ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) -  ?
Setut -  ?
Wakhare Khety I -  ?
Merykare -  ?
Wankhare Khety II -  ?
Menethoupe I -  ?
Wankhare Khety III -  ?
Khety II -  ?
Khety II's daughter -  ?
Merikare's daughter -  ? -2130

Tenth Dynasty

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor - 2130- ?
Neferkare IV -  ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) -  ?
Merykare -  ?
--- -  ? -2040

Eleventh Dynasty

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Intef I - 2134-2117
Intef II - 2117-2069
Intef III - 2069-2060
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060-2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II - 2010-1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III - 1997-1991

Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to be beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to Twelfth Dynasty, some scolars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois , located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty , marking the start of the Second Intermediate period.

Twelfth Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1782 BC .

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhet I - 1991-1962
Senusret I (Sesostris I) - 1971-1926
Amenemhet II - 1929-1895
Senusret II (Sesostris II) - 1897-1878
Senusret III (Sesostris III) - 1878-1841
Amenemhet III - 1842-1797
Amenemhet IV - 1798-1786
Queen Sobeknefru A rare female ruler. 1785-1782

Second intermediate period

The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties .

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois , located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty .

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV , and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a /Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis , the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I .

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty . This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia

Thirteenth Dynasty

The Thirteenth Dynasty ruled from 1786 to around 1705 BC .

Name Comments Dates
Sobkhotep I - 1786- ? (5+ yrs.)
Senbuef - 3 or more yrs.
Sehetepibre - c. 1770-1769
Ameny Intef IV (Amenemhet V ) -  ? -1760
Amu Sihornerjheryotef -  ?
Renseneb - 4 mo. in c. 1760
Hor - c. 1760
Sobekhotep II (Amenemhet VI ) - c. 1750
Ugaf - 2 years
Senusret IV -  ?
Khendjer - 4 yrs, incl. c. 1747
Semenkhkare -  ?
Sobekemsaf I -  ?
Sobekhotep III - c. 1745
Neferhotep I - 1741-1730
Sobekhotep IV - 1730-1720
Merneferre Ai - c. 1720
Neferhotep II -  ?
Dudimose I - c. 1674
Dudimose II -  ?
Senebmiu -  ?
Mentuhotep V -  ?
Senaayeb -  ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC .

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? -  ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? -  ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? -  ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? -  ?
 ? -  ?
---djefare ? -  ?
---webenre - c. 1690

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1567 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi Ruled either 1 or 3 years 1674- ?
Yakubher - 8 years
Khyan -  ?
Apepi I - 40 years or more
Apepi II -  ?
Khamudy -  ? -1567

Sixteenth Dynasty

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium) and ruled from 1663 to around 1555 BC:

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuty (Sekhemresementawy) - 3 y
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemresewosertawy) - 16 y
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) - 1 y
Mentuhotepi (Sankhenra) - 1 y
Nebiryraw I (Sewadjenra) - 26 y
Nebiryraw II - 3 m?
- (Semenra ) - 1 y?
Bebiankh (Sewoserenra) - 12 y
- (Sekhemreshedwaset ) - 3 m?
- names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -

Some sources include as many as six more names -- Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III) -- who are not attested elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Seventeenth Dynasty

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1570 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rehotep - 1650- ?
Intef V the Elder - 3 years
Intef VI -  ?
Sobekemsaf II - 16 years
Thuty - 1 year
Mentuhotep VI - 1 year
Nebiryerawet I - 6 years
Nebiryerawet II -  ?
Semenmedjatre -  ?
Seuserenre - 12 years
Shedwast -  ?
Intef VII - 3 or more years
Senakhtenre -  ?
Tao I the Elder - c. 1633
Tao II the Brave - c. 1574
Kamose - 1573-1570

New Kingdom

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

The New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

Eighteenth Dynasty

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1570 to 1293 BC :

Name Comments Dates
Ahmose I, Ahmosis I Successor to Kamose, above. 1570-1546
Amenhotep I - 1551-1524
Djehutymes I (Tuthmosis I) - 1525-1518
Djehutymes II (Tuthmosis II) - 1518-1504
Djehutymes III (Tuthmosis III) - 1503-1450
Hatshepsut A rare female ruler 1498-1483
Amenhotep II - 1453-1419
Djehutymes IV (Tuthmosis IV) - 1419-1386
Amenhotep III - 1386-1349
Amenhotep IV Akhenaten Founder of brief period of monotheism Aten 1350-1334
Smenkhkare - 1336-1334
Tutankhamun - 1334-1325
Kheperkheprure Ai - 1325-1321
Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun 1321-1293

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1293 to 1185 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great:

Name Comments Dates
Ramesses I - 1293-1291
Seti I - 1291-1278
Ramesses II the Great The ruler usually associated with Moses 1279-1212
Merneptah - 1212-1202
Amenemses - 1202-1199
Seti II - 1199-1193
Merneptah Siptah - 1193-1187
Queen Twosret A rare female ruler 1187-1185

Twentieth Dynasty

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1070 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Setnakhte - 1185-1182
Ramesses III - 1182-1151
Ramesses IV - 1151-1145
Ramesses V - 1145-1141
Ramesses VI - 1141-1133
Ramesses VII - 1133-1126
Ramesses VIII - 1126
Ramesses IX - 1126-1108
Ramesses X - 1108-1098
Ramesses XI - 1098-1070

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

While not regarded as a dynasty per se, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to 945 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Herihor - 1080-1074
Piankh - 1074-1070
Pinedjem I - 1070-1032
Masaherta - 1054-1046
Menkheperre - 1045-992
Nesbanebdjed II Also known as Smendes II 992-990
Pinedjem II - 990-969
Psusennes III almost certainly the same person as Psusennes II 969-945

Twenty-first Dynasty

The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC

Name Comments Dates
Nesbanebdjed I Also known as Smendes I 1069-1043
Amenemnisu - 1043-1039
Psusennes I - 1039-991
Amenemope - 993-984
Osorkon the Elder - 984-978
Siamun - 978-959
Psusennes II - 959-945

Third intermediate period

The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

Twenty-second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 715 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Shoshenq I Biblical Shishaq 945-924
Osorkon I - 924-889
Shoshenq II - 890-890/889
Takelot I - 889-874
Harsiese A rebel, at Thebes 870-860
Osorkon II - 874-850
Takelot II - 850-825
Shoshenq III - 825-786
Shoshenq "quartus" also known as Shoshenq Ib, IIIa, IIIbis, "IV" (not to be confused with Shoshenq IV ), and others 786-773
Pami - 773-767
Shoshenq V - 767-730
Osorkon IV - 730-715

Twenty-third Dynasty

The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Leontopolis, that ruled from 818 to 715 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Pedibastet - 818-793
Shoshenq IV - 792-787
Osorkon III - 787-759
Takelot III - 764-757
Rudamon - 757-754
Iuput - 754-715

The Libu

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 800 to 727 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 800-790
 ? - 790-775
Niumateped - 775-750
Titaru - 758-750
Ker - 750-745
Rudamon - 745-740
Ankhor - 740-731
Tefnakht - 731-727

Twenty-fourth Dynasty

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 727 to 715 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Tefnakhte - 727-720
Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 720-715

Late period

The Late Period runs from 716 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded Egypt in 716 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Shabaka - 716-702
Shebitku - 702-690
Taharqa - 690-664
Tantamani died 653 664-656

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroλ (590 BC-4th cent. AD).

Twenty-sixth Dynasty

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 665 to 525 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Comments Dates
Necho I -  ?
Psamtik I - 664 BC - 610 BC
Necho II - 610 - 595 BC
Psamtik II - 595 - 589 BC
Wahibre - 589 - 570 BC
Ahmose II - 570 - 526 BC
Psammetichus III - 526 - 525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty

Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Cambyses II - 525- 521
Smerdis the Usurper - 521 BC
Darius I the Great - 521 - 486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486 - 465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465 - 464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464 - 424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424 - 423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424 - 423 BC
Darius II - 424 - 404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404 - 398 BC

Twenty-ninth Dynasty

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nefaarud I Also known as Nepherites 398 - 393 BC
Psammuthes - 393 BC
Hakor (Achoris) - 393 - 380 BC
Nefaarud II - 380 BC

Thirtieth Dynasty

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once came more under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nectanebo I Also known as Nekhtnebef 380 - 362 BC
Teos - 362 - 360 BC
Nectanebo II - 360 - 343 BC

Persians and Macedonians

Egypt came under the control of the Persians and Macedonians from 343 to 309 BC. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian for the second time 343–338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BC
Khabbabash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338–335 BC
Darius III Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336–332 BC
Alexander III the Great Macedon conquered Persia, and Egypt 332–323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded son of Philip II of Macedonia; half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BC
Alexander IV of Macedon Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BC

Ptolemaic Dynasty

In the Hellenistic period, the Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency):

Name Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I  ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/81-ca. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246–222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/3-222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI, briefly regent for her son Ptolemy VII 175-164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Installed by Seleucid Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–164 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Antiochus IV Epiphanes 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163–145 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145–116 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VIII 144-116 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII; co-regent with her son Ptolemy IX and later with Ptolemy X 142-109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored 109–107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Restored 107–88 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored again 88–81 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81-80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV  ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII  ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Caesarion Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra 44–30 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48-47 BC


Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.


  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71-76.

See also

External links

Last updated: 05-21-2005 01:25:47