Liaoning () is a northeastern province of the People's Republic of China. Its one-character abbreviation is Liao (辽 pinyin: liáo).
"Liao" is an ancient name for this region, which was adopted by the Liao Dynasty (Khitan Empire) which ruled this area between 907 and 1125. "Níng" means "peacefulness." Historical names of Liaoning province include Fengtian (奉天 pinyin: Fèngtiān; Postal System Pinyin: Fengtien) and Shengjing (盛京 pinyin: Shèngjīng).
Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast, a part of what is often referred to as Manchuria. Liaoning borders the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay) and the Bohai Gulf in the south, North Korea in the southeast, Jilin Province to the northeast, Hebei Province to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest.
The Yalu River marks the border between North Korea and the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. It empties into the Korea Bay between Dandong (Liaoning) and Sinŭiju (North Korea).
See also: Xianbei, Manchuria
Liaoning is the southernmost part of the region historically known as Manchuria. The Qin and Han dynasties were able to establish rule over much of what is Liaoning; later on governments headed by various peoples such as the Xianbei, Goguryeo, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning. In the 17th century the Manchus had their capital in modern Shenyang, Liaoning, before they conquered the rest of China, setting up the Qing Dynasty in 1644. In the last half of the seventeenth century the imperial government recruited migrants from Shandong to settle the relatively sparsely populated area. Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. For the rest of the Manchu era, Manchuria was off-limits to Han Chinese, and was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing , ruled much of modern Liaoning.
In 1860 the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region. In the 20th century the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning. During the Warlord Era in the early 20th century Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique , including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang; in 1931 Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign ) in and around Liaoning.
At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi , as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged together into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.
Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have exprienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a Revitalize the Northeast Campaign.
Partial list of provincial governors:
- Chen Puru (1980-1983)
- Quan Shuren (1983-1986)
Li Changchun (1986-1990)
- Yue Qifeng (1990-1994)
- Wen Shizhen (1994-1998)
- Zhang Guoguang (1998-2001)
Bo Xilai (2001-2004)
- Zhang Wenyue (since 2004)
It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plains in the middle, and hills in the east.
The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains , which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia. The entire region is dominated by low hills.
The central part of Liaoning consists of the watersheds of rivers such as the Liao, Daliao , and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and at low altitudes.
The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai Shan and Qian Shan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.
Liaoning has a continental monsoon climate, and rainfall averages to about 440-1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.
In 2004, paleontologists unearth the first fossil of the Mei long.
Liaoning is composed of 14 prefecture-level cities:
Shenyang (沈阳市 : Shěnyáng shì)
Dalian (大连市 : Dàlián shì)
Anshan (鞍山市 : Ānshān shì)
Fushun (抚顺市 : Fǔshùn shì)
Benxi (本溪市 : Běnxī shì)
Dandong (丹东市 : Dāndōng shì)
Jinzhou (锦州市 : Jǐnzhōu shì)
- Huludao (葫芦岛市 : Húludǎo shì)
Yingkou (营口市 : Yíngkǒu shì)
- Panjin (盘锦市 : Pánjǐn shì)
Fuxin (阜新市 : Fùxīn shì)
Liaoyang (辽阳市 : Liáoyáng shì)
- Tieling (铁岭市 : Tiělǐng shì)
- Chaoyang (朝阳市 : Cháoyáng shì)
These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, 8 autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1532 township-level divisions (614 towns, 302 townships, 77 ethnic townships , and 539 subdistricts).
See List of administrative divisions of Liaoning for a complete list of county-level divisions.
Main agricultural products of Liaoning include maize, Chinese sorghum and soybeans. The region around Dalian produces 3/4 of China's exported apples and peaches. Cotton is also produced.
Liaoning has the most iron, magnesite, diamond and boron deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum and natural gas. Salt is produced along the coast.
Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics, metal refining, petroleum, chemical industries, construction materials, coal, and so on.
In recent years, the city of Dalian has, in particular, been developed as a major port and the economic gateway to all of Northeast China.
The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese with minorities of Manchus, Mongols, Hui, Koreans and Xibe.
Liaoning's culture is part of a culture of Northeast China that is quite homogeneous across all of the northeastern China. See Manchuria#Culture for a detailed description.
In paleontology, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous period; eg, the early 'placental' mammal known as Eomaia.
The Shenyang Imperial Palace was the palace of the Qing Dynasty emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing. Though not as large as its counterpart (the Forbidden City) in Beijing, the Shenyang palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been grouped together with the Beijing palace by UNESCO as a combined World Heritage Site.
In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming and Qing tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs of Beijing) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Wunu Mountain City , a Koguryo site found in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County , is part of a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes sites in Ji'an , Jilin.
The city of Anshan boasts the Anshan Jade Buddha , the largest Buddha statue made of jade in the world.
Liaoyang, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan dynasty.
The port city of Dalian, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beaches, resorts, zoos, seafood, shopping, Russian- and Japanese-era architecture, and streetcars, a rare site in China.
Dandong, on the border with North Korea, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinŭiju.
Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:
Colleges and universities
Under the national Ministry of Education:
Under various other national agencies:
Under the provincial government:
Last updated: 05-06-2005 14:25:48