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Kranzberg's laws of technology

Melvin Kranzberg's six laws of technology state:

1st - Technology is neither good nor bad; nor is it neutral.
2nd - Invention is the mother of necessity.
3rd - Technology comes in packages, big and small.
4th - Although technology might be a prime element in many public issues, nontechnical factors take precedence in technology-policy decisions.
5th - All history is relevant, but the history of technology is the most relevant.
6th - Technology is a very human activity - and so is the history of technology.


  • Kranzberg, Melvin. "Technology and History: 'Kranzberg's Laws.'" Technology and Culture 27 (1986): 544-560.
  • Kranzberg, M (1997) "Overview: Technology and History: Kranzberg's Laws", in Reynolds, TS and Cutcliffe, SH (Eds) Technology and the West: A Historical Anthology from Technology & Culture, University of Chicago Press.

Last updated: 03-18-2005 11:16:12