Kingdom of Gwynedd
Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. Covering an area in the north-west of the country around Snowdonia and including the island of Anglesey, its rulers—such as Owain Gwynedd, Llywelyn the Great and Llywelyn the Last—tended to gain the ascendancy over their rivals. The region's geography made it difficult for English kings to impose their will on the local rulers.
During the period of the Norman conquest of Wales, between the years 1066 and 1282, Gwynedd was a centre of national resistance, the last stronghold of the native Welsh princes against the kings of England.