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# J

The letter J is the tenth of the Latin alphabet; it was the last to be added to that alphabet.

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## History

J was originally a capital of I. Some people in the German-speaking world still follow the convention of writing (for example) "Isabel" as "Jsabel" and Jnes as "Ines"; one also sometimes encounters J as a capital of I in Italy.

Petrus Ramus (d. 1572) was the first to make a distinction between I and J. Originally, both I and J were pronounced (see IPA) as , [i:], and [j]; but Romance languages developed new sounds (from former [j] and [g]) that came to be represented as I and J; therefore, English J (from French J) has a sound quite different from I.

In other Germanic languages J stands for [j]. This is also true of Slavic languages that use the Latin alphabet as well as in Hungarian, Albanian, and Finnish, where it can never be a fricative.

In modern standard Italian only foreign or Latin words have J. Until the 19th century, J was used instead of I in diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, or in vowels groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. J is also used for rendering words in dialect, where it stands for [j], e.g. Romanesque ajo for standard aglio (garlic).

In Spanish J stands for [x ~ h] (which in some cases developed from the [dʒ] sound, i.e. the same sound that English still has). In French former is now pronounced as [ʒ] (as in English measure).

In Turkish, Azeri and Tatar J is always prounced [ʒ].

Hebrew also influenced the English J, which in a few cases is used for [j] in place of the more normal Y. The classic example is Hallelujah which is pronounced the same as Halleluyah. See the Hebrew yod for more details.

## Alternate representations

Juliet represents the letter J in the NATO phonetic alphabet.

In international Morse code the letter J is DitDahDahDah: · - - -

In Braille the letter J is represented as (in Unicode), the dot pattern,

.X
XX
..


## Meanings for J

J can also refer to:

## Computing

In Unicode the capital J is codepoint U+004A and the lowercase j is U+006A.

The ASCII code for capital J is 74 and for lowercase j is 106; or in binary 01001010 and 01101010, correspondingly.

The EBCDIC code for capital J is 209 and for lowercase j is 145.

The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#74;" and "&#106;" for upper and lower case respectively.

A capital J can refer to the J programming language.