The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary






Independence (disambiguation)



In business, an independent business is a term of distinction and is generally used to refer to businesses which are privately owned as opposed to those publicly owned through a distribution of shares on the market. A sole-proprietorship is the most common form of independent business. Other terms of distinction used in addition to independent businesses are small business and startup business , which have varying subtleties of distinction.


In English church history, Independents advocated local congregational control of religious and church matters, without any wider geographical hierarchy, either ecclesiastical or political. Independents reached particular prominence between 1642 and 1660, in the period of the English Civil War and of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, wherein the Parliamentary Army became the champion of Independent religious views against the Anglicanism or the Catholicism of Royalists and the Presbyterianism favoured by Parliament itself.


In mathematics,



Independence is the status of a state or country whose government is not subject to any other government. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, a similar concept is called autocephaly.

In politics, an independent is a voter or a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. In countries with a two-party system, independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between the two parties, or may feel that neither of the two parties adequately represents their viewpoint.

Recent independent candidates for U.S. President include John Anderson in 1980, Ross Perot in 1992 and Ralph Nader in 2004.


The Independent is a British broadsheet newspaper that has recently (2003) launched a tabloid sized version.


An independent film (or indie film) is a film produced without the support of a major movie studio or a big budget.

Music industry

In the music industry, an independent record label -- or indie -- is a record label not associated with the 'major' record labels.

Professional Wrestling

In Professional wrestling, an independent promotion -- or indy -- is a wrestling show not associated with the 'major' wrestling promotions.

Places in the United States

Last updated: 05-15-2005 14:37:48