Hundred Years' War
The effective beginning of the war was the decision of King Edward III of England to make a claim to the throne of France following the death of King Charles IV of France in 1328. Edward's claim was through his mother, Isabella of France, Charles's sister. However, the French quoted the Salic law in order to bypass female heirs. Edward refused to do homage to Philip VI of France in 1337 and war began soon afterward.
Edward's campaigns against the French knights were mostly successful. He was far less successful against their castles. He defeated the French at the Battle of Crecy in 1346 and was defeated in turn at the Battle of the Thirty in 1351 during which 30 French knights from Chateau Josselin called out and defeated 30 English knights. The French, observing chivalric tradition, sold Knollys (Canolles ) and Cavely . This was good for the individual knights but damaged the country. Again, at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356, John II of France was poorly served by the disloyal French noble, Captal de Buch, who led an outflanking movement which cost the French the battle, and led to the imprisonment of the French king in England. At that time the English forces were under the command of the king's eldest son, Edward the Black Prince.
In 1358, a peasant revolt called the Jacquerie took place. It was caused in part by the deprivations suffered by the country people during the war and their hatred of the local nobility. Led by Guillaume Kale (Carle or Cale), they joined forces with other villages, and beginning in the area of Beauvais, north of Paris, committed atrocities against the nobles and destroyed many chateaux in the area. All the rebellious groups were defeated later that summer and reprisals followed.
Just before New Year's Day 1370, the English Seneschal of Poitou, John Chandos, was defeated at the bridge at Chateau Lussac . The loss of this commander was a significant blow to the English. Captal de Buch was also captured and locked up by King Charles who, like the English, was not bound by outdated chivalry. The Black Prince was heavily involved in Spain. During the reign of his son, the boy-king Richard II of England, there was something of a lull, and it was not until Richard had been deposed by Bolingbroke (Henry IV of England), that his son Henry V of England seriously revived the English claim to the French throne.
Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 resulted in his being accepted as the heir of King Charles VI of France, whose daughter, Catherine of Valois, he married. A civil war in France between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs was exploited by Henry V, who allied with the Burgundians.
After Henry's early death in 1422, almost simultaneously with that of his father-in-law, his baby son was crowned King Henry VI of England and also King of France, but the French (Armagnacs) remained loyal to Charles VI's son, dauphin Charles. War continued half-heartedly until the raising of the siege of Orléans in 1429, which brought Joan of Arc to the fore and led to dauphin Charles being crowned King Charles VII of France.
In 1435, the Burgundians under Philip the Good switched sides, returning Paris to the King of France. In 1450, the count of Clermont and Arthur III, Duke of Brittany caught the English army at Formigny and defeated it, using cannons to break up the archers. By 1453, Charles VII had finally created an army as opposed to a group of knights, and in the final battle of the Hundred Years' War, fought at Castillone (east of Bordeaux), the Bureau brothers used cannon to good effect against the Earl of Talbot , who was killed.
Following Henry VI's episode of insanity in 1453 and the subsequent outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their claim to the French throne and lost all their land on the continent (except for Calais). Ill feeling between the two nations continued well into the 16th century. England did not formally renounce rights to the French throne until 1800.
- 1340 Battle of Sluys June 24 Edward III beats Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI of France off the coast of Flanders and gains control of English Channel
- 1346 Battle of Crecy August 26 English longbowmen defeat French cavalry at Abbeville
- 1351 Combat of the Thirty Thirty French Knights from Chateau Josselin under Beaumanoir call out and defeat thirty English Knights under Pembroke and Brambaugh
- 1356 Battle of Poitiers Edward the Black Prince captures King John II of France, France plunges into chaos
- 1364 September 29 - Battle of Auray, end of Breton War of Succession
- 1415 Battle of Agincourt October 25 English longbowmen under Henry V defeat French under Charles d'Albert
- 1418 Siege of Rouen July 31 ? January 19 1419 Henry V of England gains a foothold in Normandy.
- 1421 Battle of Bauge . The French and Scottish forces of Charles VII commanded by the Earl of Buchan defeat the forces of Henry V commanded by the Duke of Clarence.
- 1423 Battle of Cravant. The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.
- 1428 Battle of Orléans English forces commanded by the Earl of Salisbury with duke of Bedford besiege French city and are driven off with the loss of their siege engines by Joan.
- 1428 Battle of Patay The English flush a stag and Joan runs down all the English archers capturing the leaders; Earl of Shrewsbury (Talbot) and Fastolff
- 1450 Battle of Formigny The Count of Clermont and the Earl of Richmond use cannon to break up archers and defeat the English under Kyriell
- 1453 Battle of Castillon The Valois use cannon to defeat the Lancastrians to end the Hundred Years War
|Edward III||1327-1377||Edward II's son|
|Richard II||1377-1399||Edward III's grandson|
|Henry IV||1399-1413||Edward III's grandson|
|Henry V||1413-1422||Henry IV's son|
|Henry VI||1422-1461||Henry V's son|
- Philip VI the Fortunate 1328-1350
- John II the Good 1350-1364
- Charles V the Wise 1364-1380
- Charles VI the Well-Beloved 1380-1422
- Charles VII the Victorious 1422-1461
- Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
- Jean de Dunois (Jean d'Orléans) (1403-1468)
- Gilles de Rais (1404-1440)
- Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320-1380)
- John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury
- Timeline of the Hundred Years War
- Battle of Formigny
- Battle of Castillon
- Medieval Sourcebook
- Medieval Life and The Hundred Years War (online book)