Ferdinand I of Naples
In accordance with his father's will, Ferdinand succeeded Alfonso on the throne of Naples in 1458, but Pope Calixtus III declared the line of Aragon extinct and the kingdom a fief of the church. But although he died before he could make good his claim (August 1458), and the new Pope Pius II recognized Ferdinand, John of Anjou , profiting by the discontent of the Neapolitan barons, decided to try to regain the throne conquered by his ancestors, and invaded Naples.
Ferdinand was severely defeated by the Angevins and the rebels at Sarno in July 1460, but with the help of Alessandro Sforza and of the Albanian chief, Skanderbeg, who came to the aid of the prince whose father had aided him, he triumphed over his enemies, and by 1464 had re-established his authority in the kingdom. In 1478 he allied himself with Pope Sixtus IV against Lorenzo de 'Medici, but the latter journeyed alone to Naples where he succeeded in negotiating an honourable peace with Ferdinand.
In 1480 the Turks captured Otranto, and massacred the majority of the inhabitants, but in the following year it was retaken by Ferdinand's son Alphonso, duke of Calabria. His oppressive government led in 1485 to an attempt at revolt on the part of the nobles, led by Francesca Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino and supported by Pope Innocent VIII; the rising having been crushed, many of the nobles, notwithstanding Ferdinand's promise of a general amnesty, were afterwards treacherously murdered at his express command.
Encouraged by Ludovico Sforza of Milan, in 1493 King Charles VIII of France was preparing to invade Italy for the conquest of Naples and starting the Italian Wars, and Ferdinand realized that this was a greater danger than any he had yet faced. With almost prophetic instinct he warned the Italian princes of the calamities in store for them, but his negotiations with Pope Alexander VI and Ludovico Sforza, having failed, he died on January 25 1494, worn out with anxiety.
Ferdinand was gifted with great courage and real political ability, but his method of government was vicious and disastrous. His financial administration was based on oppressive and dishonest monopolies, and he was mercilessly severe and utterly treacherous towards his enemies.
This entry was originally from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Marriages and Children
Ferdinand had married twice.
- First to Isabel de Claremont in 1444. Isabel was daughter to Tristan, Count di Papertino and Caterina Orsini. She died in 1465. They had six children:
- Alphonso II of Naples (November 4, 1448 - December 18, 1495).
- Leonora of Naples (June 22, 1450 - October 11, 1493). She was consort to Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and mother to Isabella d'Este and Beatrice d'Este . The later daughter was consort to Ludovico Sforza.
- Frederick IV of Naples (April 19, 1452 - November 9, 1504).
- Giovanni of Naples (June 25, 1456 - October 17, 1485). Later Archbishop of Taranto and then Cardinal.
- Beatrice of Naples (September 14/November 16, 1457 - September 23, 1508. She was Queen consort to Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary.
- Francesco of Naples, Duke of Sant Angelo (December 16, 1461 - October 26, 1486).
- Second to Joanna of Aragon (1454 - January 9, 1517). She was born to John II of Aragon and Blanche of Navarre , daughter to Charles III of Navarre and Leonor of Castile . Her maternal grandmother was herself daughter to Henry II of Castile and Juana Manuel of Villenna, daughter to John Manuel of Villena and Blanche de la Cerda . They were married on September 14, 1476. They had two children:
Ferdinand also had a number of illegitimate children:
- By his mistress Diana Guardato.
- Ferdinand d' Aragona, Duke di Montalto .
- Maria d'Aragona . Later consort to Antonio Todeschini Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi , a nephew of Pope Pius II and brother of Pope Pius III.
- Giovanna d' Aragona . Later consort to Leonardo della Rovere , Duke of Arce and Sora , a nephew of Pope Sixtus IV and brother of Pope Julius II.
- By his mistress Eulalia Ravignano.
- Maria d'Aragona . Later wife to Gian Giordano Orsini.
- By his mistress Giovanna Caracciola.
- Ferdinand d'Aragona, Count of Arsena .
- Arrigo d'Aragona, Marquess of Gerace
- Cesare d'Aragona, Marquess of Santa Agata .
- Leonor d'Aragona .
- Lucrezia d'Aragona , daughter of either Giovanna Caracciola or Eulalia Ravignano. She was consort to Onorata III, Prince of Altamura .