The Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary







Fard also farida (arabic فرض "obligation, duty") is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. The word is also used in Urdu and Hindi (spelled farz) in the same meaning (i.e. ye mera farz hai).

fard or its synonym wajib is one of the five qualifications (al-ahkam al-khamsa) into which Fiqh, the Islamic religious law, categorizes every human act (obligatory, recommended, indifferent, reprehensible, forbidden).

The law distinguishes two sorts of duties: individual (fard ayn) and collective (fard kifaya). The first relates to tasks every Muslim is required to perform like the daily prayer (salat) or the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime (hajj). The second is a duty which is imposed on the whole community of believers (umma). The classic example for the fard kifaya is jihad: the individual is not required to perform it as long as a sufficient number of community members fulfills it.

Last updated: 10-08-2005 04:17:00
Last updated: 10-29-2005 02:13:46