This article is about Cincinnati, Ohio. For the town of the same name in Iowa, see Cincinnati, Iowa.
As of the 2000 census, Cincinnati had a total population of 331,285 making it the third largest city in Ohio. It has a much larger metropolitan area covering parts of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana, with nearly two million residents. It is home to both the Reds (Major League Baseball) and the Bengals (National Football League), as well as some major corporations such as Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Federated Department Stores (owner of Macy's and Bloomingdale's), and the US Playing Card Company.
Cincinnati was founded in 1788 near the site of Fort Washington. It was first named "Losantiville" by Israel Ludlow, a name formed from a hodgepodge of four different languages meaning "The city opposite the mouth of the Licking River." "Ville" is French for "city," "anti" is Greek for "opposite," "os" is Latin for "mouth," and "L" was all that was included of "Licking River." In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was president. The Society honored General George Washington, who was considered a latter day Cincinnatus - the Roman general who saved his city, then retired from power to his farm. To this day, Cincinnati in particular, and Ohio in general, are home to a disproportionately large number of descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers who were granted lands in the state.
In 1802, Cincinnati was chartered as a village, and in 1819 it was incorporated as a city. The introduction of steam navigation on the Ohio River in 1811 and the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1832 helped the city grow to 115,000 citizens by 1850. The nickname "Porkopolis" was coined around 1835, when Cincinnati was the country's chief hog packing center, and herds of pigs traveled the streets. Called the "Queen of the West" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Cincinnati was an important stop on the Underground Railroad, which helped slaves escape from the South.
As a pioneer-era city, it compared with Pittsburgh and Nashville. As a "Riverboat" and canal-era city, it compared with Louisville, St. Louis, and New Orleans. As an immigrant, industrial city it compared with Brooklyn, Cleveland, Chicago, and Detroit.
Because of its river setting and extensive park system, many commentators have remarked on Cincinnati's beauty, including Winston Churchill who called it "the most beautiful of America’s inland cities." The city's picturesque skyline was used as a backdrop for the fictional city of Monticello on the soap opera The Edge of Night.
Currently, although downtown Cincinnati generally votes Democratic like other racially-diverse Midwestern cities, greater Cincinnati/Hamilton County generally votes Republican - a demographic legacy of its conservatism rooted in families with pioneer, Revolutionary War veteran, and German-American immigrant ancestry.
The city is governed by a nine-member city council, whose members are elected at large. From 1925 to 1957, the council was seleted by proportional representation. As of 1957, all candidates run in a single race and the top nine vote-getters are elected (the "9-X system"). The mayor was selected by the council. Starting in 1987, the top vote-getter in the city council race automatically became mayor. Starting in 1999, the mayor was chosen in a separate election. Cincinnati politics includes the participation of the Charter Party, the longest continuous third-party that has won politics in local elections.
Cincinnati is located at 39°8'10" North, 84°30'11" West (39.136160, -84.503088)1. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 206.1 km² (79.6 mi²). 201.9 km² (78.0 mi²) of it is land and 4.1 km² (1.6 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 2.01% water.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 331,285 people, 148,095 households, and 72,566 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,640.5/km² (4,249.0/mi²). There are 166,012 housing units at an average density of 822.1/km² (2,129.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 52.97% European American, 42.92% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.55% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.63% from other races, and 1.68% from two or more races. 1.28% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 148,095 households out of which 25.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.6% are married couples living together, 18.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 51.0% are non-families. 42.8% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.1% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.15 and the average family size is 3.02.
In the city the population is spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 32 years. For every 100 females there are 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 85.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $29,493, and the median income for a family is $37,543. Males have a median income of $33,063 versus $26,946 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,962. 21.9% of the population and 18.2% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 32.0% are under the age of 18 and 14.8% are 65 or older.
People from Cincinnati
- Doris Day, popular singer and actress
- Ken Griffey, Jr., baseball player (born in Pennsylvania, but grew up in Cincinnati)
- Nick Lachey, lead singer of 98 Degrees, now married to Jessica Simpson (appearing together on the MTV reality show Newlyweds)
- Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President
- Henry Heimlich , inventor of the Heimlich maneuver
- Bill Hemmer, CNN anchor and reporter
- Charles Manson, famous serial killer
- Sarah Jessica Parker, actress
- Carmen Electra, born Tara Leigh Patrick. Actress, Singer
- Pete Rose, baseball player
- Oscar Robertson, Basketball Hall of Famer
- Albert Sabin, discoverer of oral polio vaccine
- Tony Snow , news commentator
- Steven Spielberg, movie director
- Jerry Springer, former mayor of Cincinnati and current talk show host
- Harriet Beecher Stowe, author and abolitionist
- Robert A. Taft, 'Mr. Republican', and Senate leader
- William Howard Taft, 24th President, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
- Lytle family; Longworth family; early leading Cincinnati families
- Ray Combs, host of Family Feud, 1988-1994
- Thomas Samuel Kuhn
- Jerry Rubin, political activist, Chicago Seven
- Daniel Carter Beard , founder Sons of Daniel Boone
- Roger Staubach, Dallas Cowboys football Hall of Famer
- Aloysius Snuffleupagus' grandmother (fictional character on Sesame Street)
- The staff of the radio station in TV series, WKRP in Cincinnati
- Rain Man Dustin Hoffman's character was picked up from a suburban asylum by Tom Cruise
- Afghan Whigs - rock band
- Kendall Bruns - Visual Artist and Musician
- Boom Bip - Electronic Musician
- Cincinnati Brass Band
- Bootsy Collins, Funk bassist
- Henry Fillmore, march music composer
- The Isley Brothers, R&B and Soul singers
- Mamie Smith, blues singer
- Gary Stone - Evangelistic Elvis impersonator
- Blessid Union of Souls - Rock Band
- 98 Degrees - Boy Band of the '90s
- Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport is located in Hebron, Kentucky , and serves Cincinnati, Ohio.
- The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge, opened in 1866, links Cincinnati and Covington, Kentucky.
- Cincinnati is accessible via interstates: I-75, I-71 and I-74
- Lunken Airport - Cincinnati Municipal Airfield
- Amtrak Passenger Rail Service
- Greyhound Lines Bus Service
- Cincinnati is served by two daily newspapers: The Cincinnati Enquirer, owned by Gannett Co., and The Cincinnati Post, owned by Scripps Howard .
- One African American newspaper is also published: The Cincinnati Herald .
- Two weekly newspapers serve Cincinnati. The older of the two is CityBeat , published by Lightborne Publishing. CiN Weekly is the second weekly and is published by Gannett Co.
- Mt Adams
- Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
- Coney Island of Cincinnati
- Kings Island (located in a suburb north of Cincinnati)
- Carl Solway Gallery
- Cincinnati Art Galleries
- The Design Consortium Gallery
- Marta Hewett Gallery
- Miller Gallery
- Visual History Gallery
- Weston Art Gallery
- American Classical Music Hall of Fame and Museum
- Cincinnati Art Museum
- Cincinnati Fire Museum
- Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal
- Cincinnati Observatory Center
- The Contemporary Arts Center
- Drake Planetarium
- Greater Cincinnati Science Education Center
- Harriet Beecher Stowe House
- National Signs of the Times Museum
- National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
- The Taft Museum
- Cincinnati Reds, Major League Baseball
- Cincinnati Bengals, National Football League
- Cincinnati Mighty Ducks, American Hockey League
- Cincinnati Bearcats , University of Cincinnati