Carneades (c. 214-129 B.C.) Born in Cyrene, North Africa. Carneades was a radical sceptic and the first of the philosophers to pronounce the failure of metaphysicians who endeavored to discover rational meanings in religious beliefs. By the time of 159 B.C. he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines, especially Stoicism, and even the Epicureans whom previous sceptics had spared.