Avicenna, or in Persian, Abu Ali Husain ebn Abdallah Ebn-e Sina or simply Ibn Sina (as he is usually called) (980 - 1037), was a Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist. He was the author of 450 books on many subjects, many on philosophy and medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, also known as the Qanun.
He was born in Kharmaithen in Persia, (today a part of Uzbekistan), and died in Hamadan, Iran). He is considered "The Father of modern medicine" and is one of the greatest physicians of all time. (Some sources actually state that Avicenna was born in Hamadan, and a good brief biography, linked below, claims him as a Persian from Balkh).
As a child he displayed an exceptional intellectual behaviour. He was a child prodigy who had memorized the Koran by the age of 10. From a greengrocer he learnt arithmetic; and higher branches were begun under one of those wandering scholars who gained a livelihood by cures for the sick and lessons for the young. He turned to medicine at 17. The teenager achieved full status as a physician at age 18 and found that: "Medicine is no hard and thorny science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved remedies." The youthful physician's fame spread quickly and he treated many patients without regards for payment. However he was greatly troubled by metaphysical problems and in particular the works of Aristotle. Later in his life he moved to Ray, located near modern Tehran (capital of Iran), the home town of Rhazes. In Ray he pursued his job in medicine more than ever before. When Ray was besieged, Ibn Sina fled to Hamadan where he cured Amir Shamsud-Dawala of colic and was made Prime Minister. Following the death of the Amir, Ibn Sina fled to dynamic Isfahan (the ancient capital of Iran), after having troubles with the law. His friends advised him to slow down and take life moderately, however he refused stating that: "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length". He died only 58 years old, but is regarded as one of history's greatest physicians.
Sina is comparable to such physician greats as Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi himself. However, despite such glorious tributes to his work, Ibn Sina is rarely remembered in the West today and his fundamental contributions to Medicine and the European reawakening go largely unrecognised.
Sina also wrote extensively on the subjects of philosophy, logic, ethics, metaphysics and other disciplines. All his works were written in Arabic (the de facto scientific language of that time) and in Persian (Sina's own mother tongue). Of linguistic significance even to this day, are a few of his books that he wrote in nearly pure Persian language.
In the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of his writings, surgical instruments from the period and paintings of patients undergoing treatment. In Iran he is considered a Persian hero and many find glory in his name. He is often regarded as one of the greatest Persians that have ever existed (he was a great Muslim just as well). Many of his portraits and statues remain in Iran today. An impressive monument to the life and works of the man who is known as the 'doctor of doctors' still stands outside Bukhara museum and his portrait hangs in the Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris. However many have forgotten his great contributions to medicine and even more so, modern living.
- Biography of Avicenna
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Avicenna
- Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna)
The following was taken from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, and should be merged with the above article.
bü ‘Au al-Husain ibn ‘Abdallãh ibn SInä (980—103 7), Persian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara. His mother was a native of the place; his father, a Persian from Balkh, filled the post of tax-collector in the neighbouring town of Harmaitin, under Nuh II. ibn Mansur, the Samanid amir of Bokhara. On. the birth of Avicenna’s younger brother the family migrated to Bokhara, then one of the chief cities of the Moslem world, and famous for a culture which was older than its conquest by the Saracens. Avicenna was put in charge of a tutor, and his precocity soon made him the marvel of his neighbours, as a boy of ten who knew by rote the Koran and much Arabic poetry besides. From a greengrocer he learnt arithmetic; and higher branches were begun under one of those wandering scholars who gained a livelihood by cures for the sick and lessons for the young. Under him Avicenna read the Isagoge of Porphyry and the first propositions of Euclid. But the pupil Soon found his teacher to be but a charlatan, and betook himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and the Almagest. Before he was sixteen he not merely knew medical theory, but by gratuitous attendance on the sick had, according to his own account, discovered new methods of treatment. For the next year and a half he worked at the higher philosophy, in which he encountered greater obstacles. In such moments of baffled inquiry he would leave his books, perform the requisite ablutions, then hie to the mosque, and continue in prayer till light broke on his difficulties. Deep into the night he would continue his studies, stimulating his senses by occasional cups of wine, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution. Forty times, it is said, he read through the Metaphysics of Aristotle, till the words were imprinted on his memory; but their meaning was hopelessly obscure, until one day they found illumination. from the little commentary by Farabi, which he bought at a bookstall for the small sum of three dirhems. So great was his joy at the discovery, thus made by help of a work from which he had expected only mystery, that he hastened to return thanks to God, and bestowed an alms upon the poor. Thus, by the end of his seventeenth year his apprenticeship of study was concluded, and he went forth to find a market for his accomplishments.
His first appointment was that of physician to the amir, who owed him his recovery from a dangerous illness (997). Avicenna’s chief reward for this service was access to the royal library of the Samanids, well-known patrons of scholarship and scholars. When the library was destroyed by fire not long after, the enemies of Avicenna accused him of burning it, in order for ever to conceal the sources of his knowledge. Meanwhile, he assisted his father in his financial labours, but still found time to write some of his earliest works.
At the age of twenty-two Avicenna lost his father. The Samanid dynasty came to its end in December 1004. Avicenna seems to have declined the offers of Mahmüd the Ghaznevid, and proceeded westwards to Urjensh in the modern Khiva, where the vizier, regarded as a friend of scholars, gave him a small monthly stipend. But the pay was small, and Avicenna wandered from place to place through the districts of Nishapur and Merv to the borders of Jhorasan, seeking an opening for his talents. Shams al-Ma’äli Qäbtis, the generous ruler of Dailam, himself a poet and a scholar, with whom he had expected to find an asylum, was about that date (1052) starved to death by his own revolted soldiery. Avicenna himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness. Finally, at Jorjan, near the Caspian, he met with a friend, who bought near his own house a dwelling in which Avicenna lectured on logic and astronomy. For this patron several of his treatises were written; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also dates from his stay in Hyrcania.
He subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of the modern Teheran, where a son of the last amir, Majd Addaula, was nominal ruler, under the regency of his mother. At Rai about thirty of his shorter works are said to have been composed. But the constant feuds which raged between the regent and her second son, Shams Addaula, compelled the scholar to quit the place, and after a brief sojourn at Kazwin, he passed southwards to Hamadãn, where that prince had established himself. At first he entered into the service of a high-born lady; but ere long the amir, hearing of his arrival, called him in as medical attendant, and sent him back with presents to his dwelling. Avicenna was even raised to the office of vizier; but the turbulent soldiery, composed of Kurds and Turks, mutinied against their nominal sovereign, and demanded that the new vizier should be put to death. Shams Addaula consented that he should be banished from the country. Avicenna, however, remained hidden for forty days in a sheik’s house, till a fresh attack of illness induced the amir to restore him to his post. Even during this perturbed time he prosecuted his studies and teaching. Every evening extracts from his great works, the Canon and the Sanatio, were dictated and explained to his pupils; among whom, when the lesson was over, he spent the rest of the night in festive enjoyment with a band of singers and players. On the death of the amir Avicenna ceased to be vizier, and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works. Meanwhile, he had written to Abu Ya’far, the prefect of Isfahan, offering his services; but the new amir of Hamadan getting to hear of this correspondence, and discovering the place of Avicenna’s concealment, incarcerated him in a fortress. War meanwhile continued between the rulers of Isfahan and Hamadan; in 1024 the former captured Hamadãn and its towns, and expelled the Turkish mercenaries. When the storm had passed Avicenna returned with the amir to Hamadan, and carried on his literary labours; but at length, accompanied by his brother, a favourite pupil, and two slaves, made his escape out of the city in the dress of a Sufite ascetic. After a perilous journey they reached Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince. The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna’s life were spent in the service of Abu Ya’far ‘Ala Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific adviser, even in his numerous campaigns. During these years he began to study literary matters and philology, instigated, it is asserted, by
criticisms on his style. But amid his restless study Avicenna never forgot his love of enjoyment. Unusual bodily vigour enabled him to combine severe devotion to work with facile indulgence in sensual pleasures. His passion for wine and women was almost as well known as his learning. Versatile, lighthearted, boastful and pleasure-loving, he contrasts with the nobler and more intellectual character of Averroes. His bouts of pleasure gradually weakened his constitution; a severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand. On a similar occasion the disease returned; with difficulty he reached Hamadan, where, finding the disease gaining ground, he refused to keep up the regimen imposed, and resigned himself to his fate. On his deathbed remorse seized him; he bestowed his goods on the poor, restored unjust gains, freed his slaves, and every third day till his death listened to the reading of the Koran. He died in June 1037, in his fifty-eighth year, and was buried in Hamadãn.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar. His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Au; all present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle. But the Canon of Avicenna is distinguished from the Al-Hawi (Continens) or Summary of Rhazes by its greater method, due perhaps to the logical studies of the former, and entitling him to his surname Of Prince of the Physicians. The work has been. variously appreciated in. subsequent ages, some regarding it as a treasury of wisdom, and others, like Avenzoar, holding it useful only as waste paper. In modern times it has been more criticized than read. The vice of the book is excessive classification of bodily faculties, and over-subtlety in the discrimination of diseases. It includes five books; of which the first and second treat of physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes the composition and preparation of remedies. This last part contains some contingent of personal observation. He is, like all his countrymen, ample in the enumeration of symptoms, and is said to be inferior to Ali in practical medicine and surgery. He introduced into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system. Of natural history and botany he pretends to no special knowledge. Up to the year 1650, or thereabouts, the Canon was still used as a text-hook in the universities of Louvain and Montpellier.
About 100 treatises are ascribed to Avicenna. Some of them are tracts of a few pages, others are works extending through several volumes. The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed ‘his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593, and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491. Of the Latin version there were about thirty editions, founded on the original translation by Gerard of Cremona. The 15th century has the honour of composing the great commentary on the text of the Canon, grouping around it all that theory had imagined, and all that practice had observed. Other medical works translated into Latin are the Medicamenta Cordialia, Canticum de Medicina, Tractatus de Syrupo Acetoso. Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent. He wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him. His book on animals was translated by Michael Scot. His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine. The Logic and Metaphysics have been printed more than. once, the latter’, e.g., at Venice in ‘493, 1495 and 1546. Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, &c., take, a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836). Two encyclopaedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned. The larger, Al-S hif a’ (Sanatio), exists nearly complete in manuscript in the Bodleian library and elsewhere; part of it on the De Anima appeared at Pavia (1490) as the Liber Sextus Naturalium, and the long account of Avicenna’s philosophy given by Shahrastani seems to be mainly an analysis, and in many places a reproduction, of the Al-Shifa’. A shorter form of the work is known as the An-najat (Liberatio). The Latin editions of part Df these works have been modified by the corrections which the monkish editors confess that they applied. There is also a Philosophia Orientalis, mentioned by Roger Bacon, and now Lost, which according to Averroes was pantheistic in tone.
For Avicenna’s life, see Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary, translated by MeG. de Slane (1842); F. Wüstenfeld’s Geschichte der frablschen Aerzte und Naturforscher (Gottingen, 1840). For his medicine, see Sprengel, Histoire de la Medecine; and for his philo;ophy, see Shahrastani, German trans. vol. ii. 213-332; K. Pranti, Geschichte der Logik, ii. 318-361; A. Stöckl, Phil. d. Mittelalters, ii. ~3-58; S. Munk, Mélanges, 352-366; B. Haneberg in the Abhandungen der philos.-philolog. Class. der bayerischen Academie (1867); md Carra de Vaux, Avicenne (Paris, 5900). For list of extant works no C. Brockelmann’s Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (Weimar, 898), vol. i. pp. 452-458. (XV. W.; G. W. T.)
Ibn Sina (d. 1037) was an early scientist and a pioneer of medicine. A child prodigy, he became the acknowledged Muslim master of Aristotle, and influential in the Mutazilite school, which argued the validity of reason alone, against the Asharite school.
Unlike Aquinas who more or less sanctified Aristotle as church dogma, Sina corrected him often, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad (which was still a part of religious life at that time). Accordingly he is one of the earliest pioneers of the scientific process as we know it today, his influence on that process being profound at least, and perhaps even decisive:
His 14-volume "Canons of Medicine " was a standard medical text in Western Europe for seven centuries. It classifies and describes diseases, and outlines their assumed causes. Hygiene, simple and complex medicines, and functions of parts of the body are also covered. It asserts that tuberculosis was contagious, which was later disputed by Europeans, but turned out to be true. It also describes the symptoms and complications of diabetes.
- Biography of Avicenna (in English)
- Biography of Avicenna (in Persian)
- Ibn Sina