Events and Trends
- The personal union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal ends due to a revolution in the latter (1640). Philip IV of Spain is succeeded in the throne of Portugal by King John IV, previously Duke of Braganza
- Growing conflict between King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and the Long Parliament results in the outbreak of the English civil war (1642 - 1649). Supporters are respectively called Royalists and Roundheads. The Parliament eventually emerges victorious. The captive King is put on trial (January 19 - January 27, 1649) and then executed by decapitation (January 30, 1649). The monarchy is abolished and briefly replaced by the Commonwealth of England (1649 -1653).
- Anthony van Diemen, colonial governor of the Dutch East India Company, assigns Abel Tasman with the mission to explore the Terra Australis (Oceania). During his two years' expedition (1642 - 1644), the later becomes the first European to reach Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and New Zealand.
- Evangelista Torricelli constructs the first Mercury barometer (1643/ 1644).
- A series of treaties, known collectively as the Peace of Westphalia (October 24, 1648) put an end to:
- The Eighty Years' War (1568 - 1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic. The later is recognized as being fully independent.
- The Thirty Years' War (1618 - 1648) between the various Catholic and Protestant forces of Europe. Each of the about 360 German Princes of the Holy Roman Empire gains almost complete sovereignty over his/her respective territory/ territories. Switzerland is recognized as being independent from the Empire.
- King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway (1588 - 1648).
- King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670).
- King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (1625 - 1649).
- King Louis XIII of France (1610 - 1643).
- Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France (1624 - 1642).
- Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister of France (1642 - 1661).
- Anne of Austria, Queen Dowager and Regent of France (1643 - 1651).
- King Louis XIV of France (1643 - 1715).
- Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (1637 - 1657).
- Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel and Gelderland (1625 - 1647).
- William II, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel and Gelderland (1647 - 1650).
- Pope Urban VIII (1623 - 1644).
- Pope Innocent X (1644 - 1655).
- King John IV of Portugal (1640 - 1656).
- King Philip IV of Spain (1621 - 1665).
- Queen Christina of Sweden (1632 - 1654).
Last updated: 02-05-2005 12:56:00
Last updated: 02-22-2005 15:48:47